The capital city of modern Syria, located about sixty miles east of the Mediterranean coast almost directly east of Sidon. One of the oldest continuously inhabited sites, Damascus figured long and often in biblical awareness. It was a reference place for Abraham’s rescue of his kinsmen (Gen 14:15). David brought it within Israelite control (2Sam 8:5-6), but during Solomon’s reign the first of a series of Aramean kings made Damascus his capital city, continuing to intervene in the life of Israel and Judah until the Assyrian conquest in 732 BCE. Later, Roman conquests brought Damascus under the rule of Nabatean governors, including Aretas IV, who was in charge when Paul came to Damascus (Acts 9:2-30; 2Cor 11:3; Gal 1:17).