The name of four kings now known to us from ancient Mesopotamia. The king mentioned in the Bible is known to historians as Nebuchadnezzar II. He ruled Babylonia from 605 to 562 BCE and was the most powerful and longest-reigning king of the Neo-Babylonian (625–539 BCE) period. Pharaoh Neco of Egypt suffered a defeat at the hands of Nebuchadnezzar II at the city of Carchemish in 605 BCE, from which he did not recover (2Kgs 24:7). From the perspective of biblical Israel, the events associated with the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II that had the most lasting effect upon their destiny were the destruction of Judea, the conquest of Jerusalem, the burning of the Temple of Solomon, and the exile to Babylonia (597–581 BCE). The reflection on these events and the events that led up to them can be seen in the biblical materials in 2 Kings and 1 and 2 Chronicles taken with Jeremiah. Related materials may be found in Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther. (Dan 1-5) presents an account of Jews in the court of Nebuchadnezzar, along with apocalyptic visions.