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A device by means of which ownership of objects or origin of documents could be designated. In the Bible, the term refers both to an object, usually a small, semiprecious stone with writing cut into its surface that makes an impression in clay or wax, and to the impression itself. There are approximately sixty references to seals and sealing in the Bible. Some uses of seals are to render something secure against tampering (Jer 32:10; Matt 27:66), demonstrate authority (1Kgs 21:8; John 6:27), seal a letter (1Kgs 21:8; 1Cor 9:2), seal a covenant (Neh 9:38), delegate authority (Esth 8:8; John 6:27), and seal documents (Isa 8:16; Jer 32:10; Rev 5:1). The NT uses the terms “seal” and “sealing” in these primary senses (Rev 5:1), but makes metaphorical use of the terms as well. Paul refers to the circumcision of Abraham as a “seal of the righteousness that he had by faith” (Rom 4:11). Christians are “marked with the seal of the promised Holy Spirit” (Eph 1:13). Perhaps most striking of all is the reference in (Heb 1:3) to Christ as the “imprint” of God’s very being.