The end of physical and/or spiritual life. Ancient Israel’s official response to mortality was, first, to accept it as God’s design and, second, to forbid worship that was concerned with the dead (Lev 19:28; Lev 20:1-11). Neighboring cultures believed that the dead lived on in the underworld in a communicative state (Deut 18:9-14), but Israel’s theologians taught that they were, for practical purposes, nonexistent (Eccl 9:5-6). Nonetheless, foreign ideas and practices continued (1Sam 28; Isa 8:19). The NT writers emphasize that mortality can be countered. This has been done through the appearance of a new “Adam” (Christ), who empowers his followers, just as the old “Adam” affected those who came after him (1Cor 15:45-49). His resurrection demonstrates that death has lost its power.

Lev 19:28

28You shall not make any gashes in your flesh for the dead or tattoo any marks upon you: I am the Lord.

Lev 20:1-11

Penalties for Violations of Holiness
1The Lord spoke to Moses, saying:2Say further to the people of Israel:
Any of the people of Israel, or of the aliens who re ... View more

Deut 18:9-14

Child-Sacrifice, Divination, and Magic Prohibited
9When you come into the land that the Lord your God is giving you, you must not learn to imitate the abhorrent ... View more

Eccl 9:5-6

5The living know that they will die, but the dead know nothing; they have no more reward, and even the memory of them is lost.6Their love and their hate and the ... View more

1Sam 28

1In those days the Philistines gathered their forces for war, to fight against Israel. Achish said to David, “You know, of course, that you and your men are to ... View more

Isa 8:19

19Now if people say to you, “Consult the ghosts and the familiar spirits that chirp and mutter; should not a people consult their gods, the dead on behalf of th ... View more

1Cor 15:45-49

45Thus it is written, “The first man, Adam, became a living being”; the last Adam became a life-giving spirit.46But it is not the spiritual that is first, but t ... View more

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