A domesticated member of the canine family. Dogs were highly esteemed and were popular in Mesopotamia as hunting companions. The Hebrews, however, viewed them with utter disgust. When applied to a person “dog” becomes a term of disregard and humiliation, and in (Ps 22:16) enemies are called “dogs.” In (1Sam 17:43) Goliath ridicules David’s weapons by saying “Am I a dog, that you come to me with sticks?” The little dogs (Gk. kynarion) that ate the proverbial “crumbs that fall from their masters’ table,” however, had access to the house and may have been pets (Matt 15:27; Mark 7:28).

Ps 22:16

16For dogs are all around me;
a company of evildoers encircles me.
My hands and feet have shriveled;

1Sam 17:43

43The Philistine said to David, “Am I a dog, that you come to me with sticks?” And the Philistine cursed David by his gods.

Matt 15:27

27She said, “Yes, Lord, yet even the dogs eat the crumbs that fall from their masters' table.”

Mark 7:28

28But she answered him, “Sir, even the dogs under the table eat the children's crumbs.”

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