In the OT one who lives nearby (Exod 12:4; Jer 12:14; Prov 27:10) or, figuratively, one who is a fellow Israelite (Exod 2:13; 1Sam 28:17). As members of a community united by divine covenant, law, and teaching, the Israelites had obligations to God reflected in their moral obligations to each other. Thus, they were commanded not to covet their neighbor’s wife or possessions (Exod 20:16-17; Deut 5:20-21); not to hold a neighbor’s garment for pledge past sunset (Exod 22:25-26); and so forth. Each Israelite was told “to love your neighbor as yourself” (Lev 19:18). In the NT, Jesus quotes Lev. 19:18, but broadens the sphere of responsibility beyond the community of fellow Israelites, as he makes clear in the parable of the good Samaritan (Luke 10:27-37). Thus, references in the NT to loving one’s neighbor are to be understood as referring to any human being (Rom 13:8-9; Gal 5:14; Jas 2:8).

Exod 12:4

4If a household is too small for a whole lamb, it shall join its closest neighbor in obtaining one; the lamb shall be divided in proportion to the number of peo ... View more

Jer 12:14

14Thus says the Lord concerning all my evil neighbors who touch the heritage that I have given my people Israel to inherit: I am about to pluck them up from the ... View more

Prov 27:10

10Do not forsake your friend or the friend of your parent;
do not go to the house of your kindred in the day of your calamity.
Better is a neighbor who is nearb ... View more

Exod 2:13

13When he went out the next day, he saw two Hebrews fighting; and he said to the one who was in the wrong, “Why do you strike your fellow Hebrew?”

1Sam 28:17

17The Lord has done to you just as he spoke by me; for the Lord has torn the kingdom out of your hand, and given it to your neighbor, David.

Exod 20:16-17

16You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.17You shall not covet your neighbor's house; you shall not covet your neighbor's wife, or male or femal ... View more

Deut 5:20-21

20Neither shall you bear false witness against your neighbor.21Neither shall you covet your neighbor's wife.
Neither shall you desire your neighbor's house, or ... View more

Exod 22:25-26

25If you lend money to my people, to the poor among you, you shall not deal with them as a creditor; you shall not exact interest from them.26If you take your n ... View more

Lev 19:18

18You shall not take vengeance or bear a grudge against any of your people, but you shall love your neighbor as yourself: I am the Lord.

Luke 10:27-37

27He answered, “You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your strength, and with all your mind; and your neigh ... View more

Rom 13:8-9

Love for One Another
8Owe no one anything, except to love one another; for the one who loves another has fulfilled the law.9The commandments, “You shall not com ... View more

Gal 5:14

14For the whole law is summed up in a single commandment, “You shall love your neighbor as yourself.”

Jas 2:8

8You do well if you really fulfill the royal law according to the scripture, “You shall love your neighbor as yourself.”

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