Any of a large variety of hardened natural inorganic, often mineral, substances. Biblical references provide examples of the wide spectrum of uses to which stone was put. It could serve as a memorial, shrine, and pledge (Gen 28:18-22). It could cover wells (Gen 29:2-10) and doorways to tombs (Mark 15:46; Matt 27:60; Luke 11:39). It could be worked into bowls, mortars, pestles, sockets for doors, and other implements (Exod 7:19). It served as a weapon, whether thrown by hand (Exod 8:26), sling (1Sam 17:49), or catapult. It symbolized immediate destruction by its action of sinking rapidly in water (Exod 15:5), and its immobility could symbolize death (Exod 15:16). It could give the weary rest (Exod 17:12), serve as construction material for altars (Exod 20:25), or be a public record of binding law (Exod 24:12), the accomplishments of persons (Exod 28:10), or noteworthy events, as with royal stelae. It could serve as a device of public execution (Lev 24:14) or private anger (Exod 21:18). It could be used as an object of worship (Lev 26:1) or idolatry (Ezek 20:32; Deut 28:36; Deut 28:64; Deut 29:17). It could serve as a memorial of significant events (Josh 4:1-10) or covenant renewal (Josh 24:26-27) or as a named boundary point (Josh 15:6; Josh 18:17). It served as a platform for executions (Judg 9:5; Judg 9:18), and as a weapon it could be honed to fine accuracy (Judg 20:16). It stood as the measure of hardness (Job 38:30; for ice). It could cause accidental stumbling (Ps 91:12) or serve as a device of magic (Prov 17:8). Stone of special quality served as cornerstones for walls or buildings (Isa 28:16), but it could symbolize ultimate ruin (Hos 12:11). It symbolized the opposite of nourishing bread (Matt 7:9), but could in properly fashioned form hold water or wine (John 2:6-11).

Gen 28:18-22

18So Jacob rose early in the morning, and he took the stone that he had put under his head and set it up for a pillar and poured oil on the top of it.19He calle ... View more

Gen 29:2-10

2As he looked, he saw a well in the field and three flocks of sheep lying there beside it; for out of that well the flocks were watered. The stone on the well's ... View more

Mark 15:46

46Then Joseph bought a linen cloth, and taking down the body, wrapped it in the linen cloth, and laid it in a tomb that had been hewn out of the rock. He then r ... View more

Matt 27:60

60and laid it in his own new tomb, which he had hewn in the rock. He then rolled a great stone to the door of the tomb and went away.

Luke 11:39

39Then the Lord said to him, “Now you Pharisees clean the outside of the cup and of the dish, but inside you are full of greed and wickedness.

Exod 7:19

19The Lord said to Moses, “Say to Aaron, ‘Take your staff and stretch out your hand over the waters of Egypt—over its rivers, its canals, and its ponds, and all ... View more

Exod 8:26

26But Moses said, “It would not be right to do so; for the sacrifices that we offer to the Lord our God are offensive to the Egyptians. If we offer in the sight ... View more

1Sam 17:49

49David put his hand in his bag, took out a stone, slung it, and struck the Philistine on his forehead; the stone sank into his forehead, and he fell face down ... View more

Exod 15:5

5The floods covered them;
they went down into the depths like a stone.

Exod 15:16

16Terror and dread fell upon them;
by the might of your arm, they became still as a stone
until your people, O Lord, passed by,
until the people whom you acquir ... View more

Exod 17:12

12But Moses' hands grew weary; so they took a stone and put it under him, and he sat on it. Aaron and Hur held up his hands, one on one side, and the other on t ... View more

Exod 20:25

25But if you make for me an altar of stone, do not build it of hewn stones; for if you use a chisel upon it you profane it.

Exod 24:12

12The Lord said to Moses, “Come up to me on the mountain, and wait there; and I will give you the tablets of stone, with the law and the commandment, which I ha ... View more

Exod 28:10

10six of their names on the one stone, and the names of the remaining six on the other stone, in the order of their birth.

Lev 24:14

14Take the blasphemer outside the camp; and let all who were within hearing lay their hands on his head, and let the whole congregation stone him.

Exod 21:18

18When individuals quarrel and one strikes the other with a stone or fist so that the injured party, though not dead, is confined to bed,

Lev 26:1

Rewards for Obedience
1You shall make for yourselves no idols and erect no carved images or pillars, and you shall not place figured stones in your land, to wor ... View more

Ezek 20:32

32What is in your mind shall never happen—the thought, “Let us be like the nations, like the tribes of the countries, and worship wood and stone.”

Deut 28:36

36The Lord will bring you, and the king whom you set over you, to a nation that neither you nor your ancestors have known, where you shall serve other gods, of ... View more

Deut 28:64

64The Lord will scatter you among all peoples, from one end of the earth to the other; and there you shall serve other gods, of wood and stone, which neither yo ... View more

Deut 29:17

17You have seen their detestable things, the filthy idols of wood and stone, of silver and gold, that were among them.

Josh 4:1-10

Twelve Stones Set Up at Gilgal
1When the entire nation had finished crossing over the Jordan, the Lord said to Joshua:2“Select twelve men from the people, one f ... View more

Josh 24:26-27

26Joshua wrote these words in the book of the law of God; and he took a large stone, and set it up there under the oak in the sanctuary of the Lord.27Joshua sai ... View more

Josh 15:6

6and the boundary goes up to Beth-hoglah, and passes along north of Beth-arabah; and the boundary goes up to the Stone of Bohan, Reuben's son;

Josh 18:17

17then it bends in a northerly direction going on to En-shemesh, and from there goes to Geliloth, which is opposite the ascent of Adummim; then it goes down to ... View more

Judg 9:5

5He went to his father's house at Ophrah, and killed his brothers the sons of Jerubbaal, seventy men, on one stone; but Jotham, the youngest son of Jerubbaal, s ... View more

Judg 9:18

18but you have risen up against my father's house this day, and have killed his sons, seventy men on one stone, and have made Abimelech, the son of his slave wo ... View more

Judg 20:16

16Of all this force, there were seven hundred picked men who were left-handed; every one could sling a stone at a hair, and not miss.

Job 38:30

30The waters become hard like stone,
and the face of the deep is frozen.

Ps 91:12

12On their hands they will bear you up,
so that you will not dash your foot against a stone.

Prov 17:8

8A bribe is like a magic stone in the eyes of those who give it;
wherever they turn they prosper.

Isa 28:16

16therefore thus says the Lord GOD,
See, I am laying in Zion a foundation stone,
a tested stone,
a precious cornerstone, a sure foundation:
“One who trusts will ... View more

Hos 12:11

11In Gilead there is iniquity,
they shall surely come to nothing.
In Gilgal they sacrifice bulls,
so their altars shall be like stone heaps
on the furrows of th ... View more

Matt 7:9

9Is there anyone among you who, if your child asks for bread, will give a stone?

John 2:6-11

6Now standing there were six stone water jars for the Jewish rites of purification, each holding twenty or thirty gallons.7Jesus said to them, “Fill the jars wi ... View more

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