The Nativity by Helen K. Bond

Jesus’ birth is one of the best-known Bible stories. So it can come as a surprise to realize that it only appears in two Gospels, Matthew and Luke. And their stories are quite different. Only Matthew has a star, wise men, King Herod, and the slaughter of the toddlers in Bethlehem. Only Luke, in the passage under discussion, has a census, a stable, angels, and shepherds. Most scholars date these texts to 80-100 C.E., and they assume that by this time the precise details of Jesus’ birth had been forgotten.

What the infancy stories do is set up the story of Jesus in each Gospel, reflecting the interests and theology of each writer. So Matthew presents Jesus as a royal figure whose birth is signaled in the heavens; foreign visitors point ahead to the spread of the message to all nations (Matt 28:19); and Herod’s slaughter of the infants recalls the actions of Pharaoh in Exodus, subtly casting Jesus as a new Moses. Luke’s birth story illustrates two of his interests: a concern to show that Jesus came for the poor (hence his humble surroundings and the visit of the shepherds) and a fondness for linking events in Christian history with wider events on the world stage. But are there no historical facts behind Luke’s story?

Was Jesus born in Bethlehem?

Despite their differences, Matthew and Luke both agree that Jesus was born in Bethlehem. In Matthew, the holy family lives there already, so the author of this Gospel has to explain why they eventually settle in Nazareth—which he does by the story of Herod’s massacre and his son Archelaus’s cruelty (Matt 2:13-23). In Luke, the family lives in Nazareth, and this author has to bring them down to Bethlehem for Jesus’ birth, which he does by means of a census (Luke 2:1-5).

Bethlehem, of course, was not any old town. Ten kilometers south of Jerusalem, it was the ancestral home of King David (1Sam 17:12). God made a covenant with David and a belief developed that a future, messianic king would be from his house (Ps 89:19-37, Isa 9:2-7, Isa 11:1-9, Ezek 34:23-24). So Bethlehem came to be seen as the birthplace of the Messiah (see especially Mic 5:2, a passage quoted in Matt 2:5-6). To claim that Jesus was born in Bethlehem, then, was a clear attempt to proclaim him as David’s son, the longed-for Jewish Messiah.

But how historical is the Bethlehem tradition? Surprisingly, perhaps, no other New Testament text mentions it: there is nothing in the letters of Paul, our earliest Christian writer, and nothing in Mark, our earliest Gospel. Even stranger, perhaps, is the Gospel of John’s curious silence, even when Nathaniel flippantly asks if anything good can come out of Nazareth (John 1:46)—surely the perfect cue for the true story of Jesus’s birth. There is good reason to suppose, then, that even if the Bethlehem tradition predated Matthew and Luke, it was unknown to many of the earliest Christians. While this does not prove that the tradition has no factual basis, it seems more likely that the story was developed within early Christian circles to connect Jesus with the Davidic Messiah.

Was there really a census?

Yes—it was carried out by Publius Sulpicius Quirinius, the capable legate of Syria (6-12 C.E.). When Herod I died in 4 B.C.E., his kingdom was divided among three of his sons, and the largest section (Judea, Samaria, and Idumea) was given to his son Archelaus. After ten years, however, Archelaus was deposed and the emperor Augustus decided to transform the territory into a Roman province, ruled directly by a Roman prefect. The census was taken at this point, in 6 C.E., to allow Rome to work out what each resident should be paying in tax.

Luke’s account contains a number of inaccuracies: the census didn’t include “all the world” (Luke 2:1), it didn’t involve Galilee, and people would have registered at their usual homes (not those of their ancestors). Furthermore, if historical, Luke’s account would contradict Matthew’s clear indication that Jesus was born shortly before the death of Herod I (that is, around a decade earlier, in 6 B.C.E.). Attempts to suggest that Luke’s reference to the “first registration” (Luke 2:2) was an earlier census carried out by Quirinius have not been successful.

In all probability, the earliest Christians did not know exactly when Jesus was born. At a time when there were no birth certificates or easily accessible records, this would not be at all surprising. Both Gospel writers wove their stories around memorable events from roughly the right period: Matthew made use of a star (or a planetary conjunction) and the death of Herod, while Luke connected it with the census of Quirinius. This fits with his tendency to associate the Christian story with wider world events (other examples include the world famine in Acts 11:28 and Claudius’s expulsion of Jews from Rome in Acts 18:2). Luke’s message is clear: far from opposing the new Christian movement, the Roman Empire provided the framework under which it could flourish.

Helen K. Bond, "Nativity (Luke 2:1-20)", n.p. [cited 1 Oct 2022]. Online:


Helen K. Bond

Helen K. Bond
Senior Lecturer, University of Edinburgh

Helen K. Bond is Professor of Christian Origins and Head of the School of Divinity at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. She is interested in all aspects of the first-century Jewish world and the emergence of earliest Christianity. Her publications include Pontius Pilate in History and Interpretation (Cambridge University Press, 1998), Caiaphas: Friend of Rome and Judge of Jesus? (Westminster John Knox, 2004), and The Historical Jesus: A Guide for the Perplexed (Bloomsbury, 2012). She has just finished a book on Mark as the first biographer of Jesus to be published by Eerdmans in 2020.

Jesus’ birth is narrated in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, both of which are highly theological accounts, but their differences reveal distinct rhetorical intentions.

Did you know…?

  • Jesus’ birth is described by only two New Testament writers—Matthew and Luke. Both accounts are from the late first century, and they differ from one another considerably.
  • Paul links Jesus’ family to the house of David in Rom 1:3. If true, this family connection might have helped stories of a birth in Bethlehem to develop.
  • The first two chapters of Luke’s Gospel describe the births of both Jesus and John the Baptist. It is clear at every point, however, that Jesus is significantly greater than John.
  • Jews had reservations about the taking of a census (see 1Chr 21:1, though compare 2Sam 24:1), particularly when it was taken by a foreign power. Quirinius’s census provoked widespread resentment, and it was only the intervention of the high priest Joazar that prevented open rebellion.
  • Neither Matthew nor Luke gives a specific date for Jesus’ birth. It is only by the fourth century that recognizable dates come into the tradition: December 25 in the western Roman Empire, and January 6 in the east.

Birth, often accounts about the birth of Jesus.

migration of the ancient Israelites from Egypt into Canaan

A gospel is an account that describes the life of Jesus of Nazareth.

Writing, speech, or thought about the nature and behavior of God.

Matt 28:19

19Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,

Relating to persuasive speech or writing.

Relating to thought about the nature and behavior of God.

Common Era; a notation used in place of A.D. ("Anno Domini") for years in the current calendar era, about the last 2,000 years.

Associated with a deity; exhibiting religious importance; set apart from ordinary (i.e. "profane") things.

A collection of first-century Jewish and early Christian writings that, along with the Old Testament, makes up the Christian Bible.

Matt 2:13-23

The Escape to Egypt
13Now after they had left, an angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream and said, “Get up, take the child and his mother, and flee to ... View more

Luke 2:1-5

The Birth of Jesus
1In those days a decree went out from Emperor Augustus that all the world should be registered.2This was the first registration and was taken ... View more

1Sam 17:12

12Now David was the son of an Ephrathite of Bethlehem in Judah, named Jesse, who had eight sons. In the days of Saul the man was already old and advanced in yea ... View more

Ps 89:19-37

19Then you spoke in a vision to your faithful one, and said:
“I have set the crown on one who is mighty,
I have exalted one chosen from the people.20I have foun ... View more

Isa 9:2-7

2 The people who walked in darkness
have seen a great light;
those who lived in a land of deep darkness—
on them light has shined.3You have multiplied the natio ... View more

Isa 11:1-9

The Peaceful Kingdom
1A shoot shall come out from the stump of Jesse,
and a branch shall grow out of his roots.2The spirit of the Lord shall rest on him,
the sp ... View more

Ezek 34:23-24

23I will set up over them one shepherd, my servant David, and he shall feed them: he shall feed them and be their shepherd.24And I, the Lord, will be their God, ... View more

Mic 5:2

The Ruler from Bethlehem
2 But you, O Bethlehem of Ephrathah,
who are one of the little clans of Judah,
from you shall come forth for me
one who is to rule in I ... View more

Matt 2:5-6

5They told him, “In Bethlehem of Judea; for so it has been written by the prophet:6‘And you, Bethlehem, in the land of Judah,
are by no means least among the ru ... View more

John 1:46

46Nathanael said to him, “Can anything good come out of Nazareth?” Philip said to him, “Come and see.”

A broad, diverse group of nations ruled by the government of a single nation.

the southern kingdom of Judah during the divided monarchy or what later became the larger province under imperial control

Luke 2:1

The Birth of Jesus
1In those days a decree went out from Emperor Augustus that all the world should be registered.

Luke 2:2

2This was the first registration and was taken while Quirinius was governor of Syria.

Acts 11:28

28One of them named Agabus stood up and predicted by the Spirit that there would be a severe famine over all the world; and this took place during the reign of ... View more

Acts 18:2

2There he found a Jew named Aquila, a native of Pontus, who had recently come from Italy with his wife Priscilla, because Claudius had ordered all Jews to leave ... View more

The territories ruled by ancient Rome, from roughly 27 B.C.E. to 476 C.E., encompassing terrorities in Europe, Africa, and Asia.

Rom 1:3

3the gospel concerning his Son, who was descended from David according to the flesh

1Chr 21:1

The Census and Plague
1Satan stood up against Israel, and incited David to count the people of Israel.

2Sam 24:1

David's Census of Israel and Judah
1Again the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel, and he incited David against them, saying, “Go, count the people of ... View more

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