Divine Secrets by Alan Lenzi

We all have secrets. For example, most people don’t know what you really think about your boss. Some people who are close to you know something about what you think because you’ve told them. But there are some things you haven’t told anyone because you want to keep your job!

The same hierarchical access to knowledge held true for ancient Near Eastern deities.

According to ancient Near Eastern texts, including the Bible, the gods revealed their thinking on various topics (for example, how to please the gods or what the future held) to select people. But they didn’t reveal everything; rather, they withheld some information because it was deemed incomprehensible (see Job 37:5) or inappropriate (see Judg 13:18, where a divine being’s name is “too wonderful” to be mentioned). This unrevealed knowledge we may call divine secrets.

In the ancient Near Eastern world, divine sovereignty and the inaccessibility of the heavens provided the conceptual background for the existence of divine secrets. Like superhuman kings, deities had absolute authority over the affairs of humans. Moreover, although the gods lived in temples in human cities, their ultimate dwelling was in the heavens. Thus, as one psalmist wrote, “our god is in the heavens; he does whatever he wants” (Ps 115:3, author’s translation). A Babylonian author made a similar point when he wrote, “the mind of a god, like the innermost heavens, is remote. Knowledge of it is too difficult; people cannot learn it.…Try as one may, people cannot learn what is the divine reason” (Babylonian Theodicy, 256–257, 264).

Since divine secrets were none of humanity’s business, ancient Near Eastern texts generally commend human submission to the prerogatives of the gods. People should live in light of the revelation that had been granted them and not pry into divine secrets. “The secret things,” Deuteronomy states, “belong to Yahweh, our god, but the revealed things belong to us and our children in perpetuity in order to keep all the words of this Torah” (Deut 29:28-29, author’s translation; note also Sir 3:21-22). This is the fundamental message of the book of Job and the Babylonian poem Ludlul Bel Nemeqi, both of which depict protagonists suffering without knowledge of the deity’s reasons for it.

There was more to divine secrets than the gods’ prerogatives and knowledge of the future. Comprehensive understanding of the created order was also considered the exclusive possession of divinity. This is why the series of questions about creation in Job 38-39 so effectively put Job in his place. At that time, humans could not possibly have known the answers to such questions; only a god could.

What was once a divine secret could be revealed, of course (see Isa 48:6-7). A dream could convey what was previously known only to a god (see Gen 41:25, Dan 2:19). Prophets entered Yahweh’s secret council and then proclaimed what they heard to people (see 1Kgs 22:19-23, Amos 3:7, Jer 23:18-22). Sometimes Yahweh appeared in person, though shrouded, to speak directly to people in an audible voice (see Deut 5:22, Job 38:1, Job 40:6). In the late biblical and Second Temple traditions, a few humans were even granted a tour of the heavens, where they learned cosmological secrets (see Ezek 40-48 and 1 Enoch).

Though the biblical deity had secrets, he seems to have prided himself in open-access revelation (see Dan 2:21, Isa 45:18-19, Isa 48:16, Deut 30:11-14), whereas Babylonian scribal elites guarded divine knowledge after its revelation as their exclusive possession, their secrets of the gods.

Alan Lenzi, "Divine Secrets", n.p. [cited 4 Dec 2022]. Online:


Alan Lenzi

Alan Lenzi
Associate Professor, University of the Pacific

Alan Lenzi is associate professor of religious and classical studies at University of the Pacific in Stockton, California. He specializes in the study of first-millennium ancient Near Eastern religious traditions, including the Mesopotamian imperial context of the Hebrew Bible. A number of his publications are accessible at the following URL:

Characteristic of a deity (a god or goddess).

Of or relating to ancient lower Mesopotamia and its empire centered in Babylon.

A Mesopotamian poem that deals with the question of human suffering, similar to the Biblical book of Job.

Pertaining to the cosmos, i.e. the known universe.

Gods or goddesses; powerful supernatural figures worshipped by humans.

The structure built in Jerusalem in 516 B.C.E. on the site of the Temple of Solomon, destroyed by the Babylonians seventy years prior. The Second Temple was destroyed in 70 C.E. by the Romans responding to Jewish rebellion.

placing oneself under the authority or control of another

An accounting for evil in the world despite God's goodness.

Job 37:5

5God thunders wondrously with his voice;
he does great things that we cannot comprehend.

Judg 13:18

18But the angel of the Lord said to him, “Why do you ask my name? It is too wonderful.”

Ps 115:3

3Our God is in the heavens;
he does whatever he pleases.

Deut 29:28-29

28The Lord uprooted them from their land in anger, fury, and great wrath, and cast them into another land, as is now the case.”29The secret things belong to the ... View more

Sir 3:21-22

21Neither seek what is too difficult for you,
nor investigate what is beyond your power.22Reflect upon what you have been commanded,
for what is hidden is not y ... View more

Job 38-39

The Lord Answers Job
1Then the Lord answered Job out of the whirlwind:2“Who is this that darkens counsel by words without knowledge?3Gird up your loins like a m ... View more

Isa 48:6-7

6You have heard; now see all this;
and will you not declare it?
From this time forward I make you hear new things,
hidden things that you have not known.7They a ... View more

Gen 41:25

25Then Joseph said to Pharaoh, “Pharaoh's dreams are one and the same; God has revealed to Pharaoh what he is about to do.

Dan 2:19

19Then the mystery was revealed to Daniel in a vision of the night, and Daniel blessed the God of heaven.

1Kgs 22:19-23

19Then Micaiah said, “Therefore hear the word of the Lord: I saw the Lord sitting on his throne, with all the host of heaven standing beside him to the right an ... View more

Amos 3:7

7Surely the Lord GOD does nothing,
without revealing his secret
to his servants the prophets.

Jer 23:18-22

18For who has stood in the council of the Lord
so as to see and to hear his word?
Who has given heed to his word so as to proclaim it?19Look, the storm of the L ... View more

Deut 5:22

Moses the Mediator of God's Will
22These words the Lord spoke with a loud voice to your whole assembly at the mountain, out of the fire, the cloud, and the thic ... View more

Job 38:1

The Lord Answers Job
1Then the Lord answered Job out of the whirlwind:

Job 40:6

God's Challenge to Job
6Then the Lord answered Job out of the whirlwind:

Ezek 40-48

The Vision of the New Temple
1In the twenty-fifth year of our exile, at the beginning of the year, on the tenth day of the month, in the fourteenth year after t ... View more

Dan 2:21

21He changes times and seasons,
deposes kings and sets up kings;
he gives wisdom to the wise
and knowledge to those who have understanding.

Isa 45:18-19

18For thus says the Lord,
who created the heavens
(he is God!),
who formed the earth and made it
(he established it;
he did not create it a chaos,
he formed it ... View more

Isa 48:16

16Draw near to me, hear this!
From the beginning I have not spoken in secret,
from the time it came to be I have been there.
And now the Lord GOD has sent me an ... View more

Deut 30:11-14

Exhortation to Choose Life
11Surely, this commandment that I am commanding you today is not too hard for you, nor is it too far away.12It is not in heaven, that ... View more

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