Gender and Class in the Song of Songs by Athalya Brenner

The beautiful lyrics about heterosexual sensuality, desire, and love in the Song of Songs beg to be identified with and embraced. Yet as we read and reread, we become aware of small but persistent nuances that raise issues of gender and class and that cloud the general, seemingly idyllic picture that pervades much of the Song (Song 3:1-4 and Song 5:2-8 are the exceptions).

In theater as well as in fiction, the characters with the most lines are usually the more dominant. In the Song, female voices make up more than 60 percent of the text; their voices are bolder, more playful, more outspoken, serious, and artistic than the voices attributed to males. A woman’s voice opens Song 1:2 and concludes the Song 8:14). The poem seems to imply gender equality, even female gender superiority.

This impression of female ascendancy is buttressed by one of the most poignant and comprehensive love “credos” to be voiced by a female: 

Let me be a seal upon your heart,
Like the seal upon your hand.
For love is fierce as death,
Passion is mighty as Sheol;
Its darts are darts of fire,
A blazing flame.
Vast floods cannot quench love,
Nor rivers drown it." (Song 8:6-7, NJPS)

It seems significant that a female speaker delivers this definition of love, as the author (or editor) could easily have chosen otherwise given that the Song of Songs is embedded in the Hebrew Bible, a patriarchal text: this lyrical declaration could have been attributed to a biblically more-often dominant male voice. It is also significant because of its fierceness and depth of emotion. It shocks us in its pain and exuberance, strength and weakness, in the hyperbolic radicalism that uses corporeal allusions as well as primal metaphors and symbols.

So, you may say, this is in keeping with the rest of this love lyric. Its female speakers are bold and physical and in general are allowed to be so: both near the beginning ("My beloved to me is a bag of myrrh, Lodged between my breasts," Song 1:13) and at the end (Song 8:6), women openly express sexual desire in a way that seems nongendered, ungendered, and universally, humanly applicable. But hang on, here comes the second part of Song 8:7, which changes this woman-friendly conclusion somewhat:

If a man offered all his wealth for love,
He would be laughed to scorn. (NJPS)

This last sentence is a comment that brings us down to earth: when a man (male) gives all his fortune for love, he is despised. Note: he gives away his fortune, and not his life or his body, as the woman would do by her declaration. 

The Song contains additional traces of kinship, class, and social norms. Brothers attempt to regulate the sexual behavior of their sisters (Song 1:6; Song 8:8-10), and lovers use "brother" and "sister" as terms of endearment. As in other biblical texts (such as Rebekah's betrothal, Gen 24), maternal brothers exercise control over their sisters in patriarchal families—even if here, in the Song, the father figure is absent.

Female lovers—if we agree that more than a single heterosexual couple resides in the poems—are mostly depicted as country maidens, although the chorus of the “daughters of Jerusalem” is urban. The urban was usually considered more cultured and educated than the rural; for instance, being "dark" from exposure to sunshine, even though "comely" (Song 1:5), was less desirable than being city-pale. Even though females talk more in the Song, articulations of metaphors, commodities, and concepts relating to business and commerce—such as aromatics, architecture, and military fortifications—are mostly uttered about females but by males. So, males—although less dominant in the Song—are still largely identified with culture, and females with nature.

This paradox brings us back to "reality": females have only their own selves to give and would give their bodies and souls for love, not the money or property they apparently lack control of. Men are not expected to sacrifice their wealth for love, certainly not their souls or bodies. Not even in the world of the Song of Songs.

Athalya Brenner, "Gender and Class in the Song of Songs", n.p. [cited 25 May 2022]. Online:


Athalya Brenner

Athalya Brenner
Professor, University of Amsterdam; Tel Aviv University; University of Stellenbosch

Athalya Brenner is professor emerita of Hebrew Bible/OldTestament in the Univeristy of Amsterdam, the Netherlands; professor in biblical studies at the Department of Hebrew Culture Studies at Tel Aviv University, Israel; and Extraordinary Professor at the University of Stellenbosch. Among her publications are I Am: Biblical Women Tell Their Own Stories (Fortress Press, 2005) and Performing Memory in Biblical Narrative and Beyond, edited with Frank Polak (Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2009).

Indirect references to another idea or document.

A West Semitic language, in which most of the Hebrew Bible is written except for parts of Daniel and Ezra. Hebrew is regarded as the spoken language of ancient Israel but is largely replaced by Aramaic in the Persian period.

a person who is sexually oriented to or who engages in sexual acts with someone of the opposite sex

A resin or oil from certain small trees found in many regions of the world that is used as a perfume or incense and also medicinally.

A social hierarchy based on men and paternity.

Song 3:1-4

Love's Dream
1Upon my bed at night
I sought him whom my soul loves;
I sought him, but found him not;
I called him, but he gave no answer.2“I will rise now and g ... View more

Song 5:2-8

Another Dream
2I slept, but my heart was awake.
Listen! my beloved is knocking.
“Open to me, my sister, my love,
my dove, my perfect one;
for my head is wet wit ... View more

Song 1:2

Colloquy of Bride and Friends
2Let him kiss me with the kisses of his mouth!
For your love is better than wine,

Song 8:14

14Make haste, my beloved,
and be like a gazelle
or a young stag
upon the mountains of spices!

Song 8:6-7

6Set me as a seal upon your heart,
as a seal upon your arm;
for love is strong as death,
passion fierce as the grave.
Its flashes are flashes of fire,
a raging ... View more

Song 1:13

13My beloved is to me a bag of myrrh
that lies between my breasts.

Song 8:6

6Set me as a seal upon your heart,
as a seal upon your arm;
for love is strong as death,
passion fierce as the grave.
Its flashes are flashes of fire,
a raging ... View more

Song 8:7

7Many waters cannot quench love,
neither can floods drown it.
If one offered for love
all the wealth of his house,
it would be utterly scorned.

Song 1:6

6Do not gaze at me because I am dark,
because the sun has gazed on me.
My mother's sons were angry with me;
they made me keeper of the vineyards,
but my own vin ... View more

Song 8:8-10

8We have a little sister,
and she has no breasts.
What shall we do for our sister,
on the day when she is spoken for?9If she is a wall,
we will build upon her a ... View more

Gen 24

The Marriage of Isaac and Rebekah
1Now Abraham was old, well advanced in years; and the Lord had blessed Abraham in all things.2Abraham said to his servant, the ... View more

Song 1:5

5I am black and beautiful,
O daughters of Jerusalem,
like the tents of Kedar,
like the curtains of Solomon.

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