Luke’s Crucifixion in Art by Heidi J. Hornik

The Crucifixion is one of the most easily identifiable scenes in the history of western art. The earliest representations date from the 4th century C.E. Although all four Gospel writers tell the story of Jesus’ crucifixion, most artists have preferred to focus on the details found in John 19:25-27 and Luke 23:33-43. Throughout the ages, artists used the crucifixion in art not just as faithful illustrations of particular gospel scene but also as ways of conveying theological lessons. These lessons differed in complexity and nature. For example, in the sixteenth century the force of the Protestant Reformation and the subsequent Catholic Counter-Reformation led to the convening of the Council of Trent. The Council of Trent’s 25th (and final) session on December 4, 1563 required artists to paint narratives that were taken directly from scripture or church teachings. The works had to be decorous and serve a teaching function.

One particular painting from this era demonstrates an exceptional interpretation of Luke’s crucifixion scene: the Crucifixion by Jan van der Straet (1523-1605), also known as Giovanni Stradano. Stradano was a Flemish artist who moved to Florence to study Italian art and culture, and his painting of the crucifixion proves to be a reliable guide through the theological subtleties associated with depicting Jesus’ death during the period of Italian art post-Trent. The renovation of Florence’s SS. Annunziata, which included Stradano’s painting Crucifixion, was part of a citywide project to modernize chapels and reemphasize the teaching of biblical stories through art.

Stradano painted in a bold new style known as Mannerism. He broke from the conventional depictions of the crucifixion to capture the moment in Luke’s crucifixion narrative, when Jesus says to the repentant thief, “Truly I tell you, today you will be with me in Paradise” (Luke 23:43). If the Crucifixion story was intended to teach beyond the basic premise that Christ must die in order to be resurrected, then the symbolism of the penitent thief offers a more personal understanding of the acceptance and forgiveness of Christ to those who seek to be with him in heaven.

Many symbolic elements pervade Stradano’s painting: Christ is the New Adam, Mary is the New Eve, the Cross is the tree of life, and a dog in chains represents the defeated Satan. Perhaps the most striking visual element is in the bottom middle of the painting. The location of the crucifixion is known in Luke as the “Skull” place. Instead of only a skull appearing at the foot of the cross as you conventionally find in medieval crucifixion scenes, Stradano draped an entire skeleton across the area immediately in front of the cross. This represents a long-standing tradition from as early as the fourth century that asserts that the “Skull” place was the final resting place of the bones of Adam. Because of his sin, the first man, Adam, gives authority over humankind to Satan (represented by the dog), who binds people in suffering and sin. Through his death, Christ defeats Satan, transforms Hades into paradise, and redeems humanity (represented by Adam). Stradano captures each of these themes using characteristics of the Mannerist style of painting: elongated proportions, contorted body positions, and use of vibrant yellow and orange colors in the fabrics to guide the eye to the essential figures.  

As decreed by the Council of Trent, the Renaissance believer would have meditated on the suffering and death of Christ through Stradano’s sacred painting. In it, he or she would have seen a defeated Satan, a rescued criminal, and a redeemed humanity thanks to the salvific, forgiving and accepting powers of “Christ the King.”

Heidi J. Hornik, "Luke’s Crucifixion in Art", n.p. [cited 1 Oct 2022]. Online:


Heidi J. Hornik

Heidi J. Hornik
Professor, Baylor University

Heidi J. Hornik is professor of Italian Renaissance and Baroque art history at Baylor University in Texas. In addition to writing the first biography on the artist, Michele Tosini and the Ghirlandaio Workshop in Cinquecento Florence, she has co-authored three interdisciplinary volumes on art and theology, Illuminating Luke, with Mikeal C. Parsons. The Acts of the Apostles Through the Centuries in Art, also by Hornik and Parsons in the Blackwell Bible Commentaries, is forthcoming in 2014.

A gathering of Catholic church leaders in Trento, Italy; in dozens of sessions between 1545 and 1563 bishops debated doctrinal points and set off the Catholic Counter-Reformation.

The Roman Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation's emphasis on scripture over ritual, works, and hierarchy.

A gospel is an account that describes the life of Jesus of Nazareth.

Of or relating to the Middle Ages, generally from the fifth century to the fifteenth century C.E. and overlapping somewhat with late antiquity.

A written, spoken, or recorded story.

Repentant of one's sins or wrongdoings.

A sixteenth-century movement in Europe that questioned the authority of the Roman Catholic Church.

Relating to thought about the nature and behavior of God.

John 19:25-27

25And that is what the soldiers did.
Meanwhile, standing near the cross of Jesus were his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary Mag ... View more

Luke 23:33-43

33When they came to the place that is called The Skull, they crucified Jesus there with the criminals, one on his right and one on his left. [34Then Jesus said, ... View more

Luke 23:43

43He replied, “Truly I tell you, today you will be with me in Paradise.”

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