The Reception History of the Tower of Babel by Phillip Michael Sherman

If you look closely in the bottom left-hand corner of the Dutch artist Pieter Brueghel’s famous painting of the tower of Babel, you will spy a trespasser. A bearded man towers above the gathered workers. He is supervising the building project. Close readers of Gen 11, however, will notice that no such figure is mentioned in the biblical account. This mysterious trespasser points to one of the main ways in which later readers constructed meaning from the words of the biblical narrative of Babel.

The story of Babel has most often been read as a caution against hubris of various sorts. Babel and its tower point to humanity’s ever-present desire to reach beyond its grasp. Such a reading was encouraged by the image of the tower with its “top in the heavens” (Gen 11:4). This lone detail was read as indicating that the builders were trying to encroach upon the realm of the divine. One early Jewish commentary even suggested that the builders hoped to use the tower as a platform to wage war against God. The rabbis (circa fifth century C.E.) imagine the builders claiming, “It is not up to Him to select the heavens for himself and to give us the lower realm. But let us go and make a tower for ourselves and we will put an idol on its summit and we will place a sword in the idol’s hand so as to give the impression that it is waging war against God” (Genesis Rabbah 38.6.5). Humanity was not content with staying in its proper place.

But what of that mysterious trespasser? He is Nimrod, and adding him to the story was a way for Breughel to highlight the supposed arrogance and impiety of the builders. Gen 10:8-10 mentions Nimrod in connection with Shinar, the location of the building of the tower (Gen 11:2). His name, in Hebrew, can also mean “Let us rebel.” But why would he wish to build a tower? The Jewish historian Josephus claims that Nimrod was a tyrant who exploited the fear of the Babelites following the flood, convincing them that he “would build a tower higher than the waters could reach and he would execute vengeance also for the destruction of his forefathers” (Jewish Antiquities 1.114). Babel is about payback! 

The hubris of globalization is an important element in many modern readings of Babel. Colonializing systems have historically insisted on the forceful imposition of the language of the conqueror on the conquered. Thus, the reference to “one language” is frequently seen as pointing to political repression and totalitarian systems. Such political hubris has no place for and does not value the particularities of human cultures and languages.

Most recently, the tower of Babel has even been connected to fears of a coming one-world government. The most visible example of this imagined connection between Babel and the new world order is the claim by a prominent conspiracy theorist that the European Parliament building is actually modeled on the tower of Babel. No word yet on who is to play the role of Nimrod.

Phillip Michael Sherman, "Reception History of the Tower of Babel", n.p. [cited 7 Oct 2022]. Online:


Phillip Michael Sherman

Phillip Michael Sherman
Assistant Professor, Maryville College

Phillip Michael Sherman is assistant professor of religion at Maryville College (Maryville, Tennessee). He is the author of Babel’s Tower Translated: Genesis 11 and Ancient Jewish Interpretation and is currently at work on a book exploring how the authors of the Bible thought about animals.

Tracing the reactions and uses of a given text throughout history.

Characteristic of a deity (a god or goddess).

A West Semitic language, in which most of the Hebrew Bible is written except for parts of Daniel and Ezra. Hebrew is regarded as the spoken language of ancient Israel but is largely replaced by Aramaic in the Persian period.

A Jewish historian from the first century C.E. His works document the Jewish rebellions against Rome, giving background for early Jewish and Christian practices.

A written, spoken, or recorded story.

religious authorities of Judaism in the period after the destruction of the second temple in 70 C.E.

Gen 11

The Tower of Babel
1Now the whole earth had one language and the same words.2And as they migrated from the east, they came upon a plain in the land of Shinar an ... View more

Gen 11:4

4Then they said, “Come, let us build ourselves a city, and a tower with its top in the heavens, and let us make a name for ourselves; otherwise we shall be scat ... View more

Gen 10:8-10

8Cush became the father of Nimrod; he was the first on earth to become a mighty warrior.9He was a mighty hunter before the Lord; therefore it is said, “Like Nim ... View more

Gen 11:2

2And as they migrated from the east, they came upon a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there.

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