Bathing in the Hebrew Bible by Eve Levavi Feinstein

To us, bathing may seem like a mundane activity. But in biblical Israel, where water was scarce, bathing was often a momentous event, fraught with religious significance.

The Bible itself offers scant insight into when and how ancient Israelites might have bathed in the course of ordinary life, although archaeology helps fill out the picture somewhat. Generally, water would be poured from a jug over the bather’s body, and this is probably how Bathsheba was washing herself when David saw her, perhaps using rainwater collected on her roof. Israelites do not generally seem to have had bathtubs, although a bathtub was found at a ninth-century B.C.E. religious site at Tel Dan, and a clay figurine of a woman in a small, shallow tub was discovered in an eighth or seventh century B.C.E. Phoenician tomb. A metaphorical reference in Jeremiah (Jer 2:22) attests to the use of soap-like substances, including natron and something called borit in Hebrew, probably made from wood or vegetable ashes.

Biblical references to bathing suggest that it was often something of a special event. A woman, for example, might bathe before an amorous encounter. Ruth bathes and anoints herself with oil (a common practice to prevent dry skin) in preparation for a nighttime meeting with Boaz, during which she intends to persuade him to take her as a wife. Ezek 23:40 likewise describes a woman bathing and putting on makeup and jewelry before meeting her lovers. For royalty, bathing was probably more common. King David, after fasting and praying for God to spare his son, bathes and anoints himself when his son dies (2Sam 12:20). These acts indicate that the king has resumed normal life, since, he observes, nothing he can do now will bring the child back.

The overwhelming majority of references to bathing in the Bible, however, have to do with ritual bathing. The Priestly laws of Leviticus (so called because they were probably written by priests) require bathing to purify oneself from various things that were considered contaminating, such as skin disease (Lev 14:8-9), sexual intercourse (Lev 15:18), and certain bodily discharges (for example, Lev 15:5-6). These laws do not explicitly require bathing after menstruation, although they do consider it contaminating (Lev 15:19-24). But some Israelite women may have bathed for this purpose: 2Sam 11:4 indicates that Bathsheba was purifying herself from her period around the time that David saw her bathing, which suggests that her moonlit bath may have been ritual in nature.  

In Priestly law, the ultimate purpose of ritual purification is to protect God’s sanctuary, the tabernacle, from contamination (Lev 15:31). Thus, for example, the high priest had to bathe before entering the tabernacle shrine (Lev 16:4). Washing was a physical act to prevent contamination by physical things, but it served a sacred function: through ritual bathing, Israelites marked off God’s space as holy and showed reverence for the divine presence.

Eve Levavi Feinstein, "Bathing in the Hebrew Bible", n.p. [cited 27 Nov 2022]. Online:


Eve Levavi Feinstein

Eve Levavi Feinstein
Writer and Editor

Eve Levavi Feinstein is a writer and editor in Palo Alto, California. She received her Ph.D. in Hebrew Bible from Harvard University and is the author of Sexual Pollution in the Hebrew Bible (Oxford University Press, 2014), which examines biblical concepts of purity in the context of sexual relations.

A West Semitic language, in which most of the Hebrew Bible is written except for parts of Daniel and Ezra. Hebrew is regarded as the spoken language of ancient Israel but is largely replaced by Aramaic in the Persian period.

Characteristic of a deity (a god or goddess).

Associated with a deity; exhibiting religious importance; set apart from ordinary (i.e. "profane") things.

Relating to or associated with people living in the territory of the northern kingdom of Israel during the divided monarchy, or more broadly describing the biblical descendants of Jacob.

Relating to the priests, the people responsible for overseeing the system of religious observance, especially temple sacrifice, depicted in the Hebrew Bible.

The means of cleansing oneself of any ritual impurity that would prevent participation in religious observance such as sacrifice at the temple.

Collective ceremonies having a common focus on a god or gods.

a site with religious significance

Literally "mound," a small hill-shaped site containing numerous occupational layers of a town or city built on top of one another over millennia.

Jer 2:22

22Though you wash yourself with lye
and use much soap,
the stain of your guilt is still before me,
says the Lord GOD.

Ezek 23:40

40They even sent for men to come from far away, to whom a messenger was sent, and they came. For them you bathed yourself, painted your eyes, and decked yoursel ... View more

2Sam 12:20

20Then David rose from the ground, washed, anointed himself, and changed his clothes. He went into the house of the Lord, and worshiped; he then went to his own ... View more

Lev 14:8-9

8The one who is to be cleansed shall wash his clothes, and shave off all his hair, and bathe himself in water, and he shall be clean. After that he shall come i ... View more

Lev 15:18

18If a man lies with a woman and has an emission of semen, both of them shall bathe in water, and be unclean until the evening.

Lev 15:5-6

5Anyone who touches his bed shall wash his clothes, and bathe in water, and be unclean until the evening.6All who sit on anything on which the one with the disc ... View more

Lev 15:19-24

19When a woman has a discharge of blood that is her regular discharge from her body, she shall be in her impurity for seven days, and whoever touches her shall ... View more

2Sam 11:4

4So David sent messengers to get her, and she came to him, and he lay with her. (Now she was purifying herself after her period.) Then she returned to her house ... View more

Lev 15:31

31Thus you shall keep the people of Israel separate from their uncleanness, so that they do not die in their uncleanness by defiling my tabernacle that is in th ... View more

Lev 16:4

4He shall put on the holy linen tunic, and shall have the linen undergarments next to his body, fasten the linen sash, and wear the linen turban; these are the ... View more

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