The Johannine Community by Paul Anderson

Religious groups have often had trouble getting along with each other—whether they belong to the same tradition or a different one. Modern-day Bible scholars study the Johannine community for help in understanding interreligious squabbles.

What was “the Johannine community”? It was a network of churches located in Asia Minor responsible for the production of four New Testament writings: the Gospel of John and the three letters known as 1 John, 2 John, and 3 John. Together, those books reveal how a particular Christian community dealt with religious tensions during the last few decades of the first century C.E.

The Johannine community may have included Christians who migrated to Asia Minor from Palestine after the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 C.E. There is also material in the Gospel of John that would have been written or used by earlier Palestinian Christians when arguing religion with other Jews of Judea, including ones who had been followers of John the Baptist, sometimes understood as Jesus’s predecessor in ministry.

Some scholars think that tensions between members of the Johannine community and their Jewish neighbors became acute when a curse against “Nazoreans” (Christians) was added to synagogue liturgies. Thus, when the Gospel of John refers to people being put out of the synagogue for confessing Jesus to be the Messiah (see John 9:22, John 12:42, John 16:2) the point could be that such expulsions were occurring in the time and place when the Gospel was written rather than during the lifetime of Jesus himself (although it is possible that expulsions could have happened in both places and times).

But there are other theories too. Some scholars claim that the relations between Jewish and Christian communities were actually quite close at this time, such that tensions might have resulted from members of the Johannine community choosing to return to the synagogues. Perhaps the schism mentioned in 1John 2:18-25 involved the departure of community members who returned to the religious certainty of the synagogue rather than remaining in the more fledgling community with Gentile believers in Jesus.

Some critics also suggest that Jewish-Christian tensions can be overemphasized, since the Johannine community experienced problems in other arenas as well. Surely community members would have felt challenged when the Roman imperial cult insisted that everyone worship the emperor Domitian as “Lord and God” during his reign from 81 to 96 C.E.—for the community’s response to that expectation, see John 20:28 and1 John 5:21. In addition, some Gentile Christian teachers apparently encouraged assimilation with the world, seeking to avoid suffering by teaching that Jesus himself did not suffer but had instead been only a spiritual being, not a flesh-and-blood human (compare 1John 4:1-3, John 19:34-35). Finally, there were hierarchical struggles with other Christian communities, as is evidenced by their rejection by a church leader named Diotrephes, who “loved to be first” (3John 1:9-10).

Whatever tensions the Johannine community might have faced, the Gospel of John presents Jesus as praying for unity among his followers (John 17) and as insisting that they love one another (John 13:34-35). This “new commandment” in the Gospel becomes an old commandment in the Johannine letters (1John 3:11-4:12; 2John 1:5), indicating that concern for internal cohesion was a particularly prominent mark of this community from its founding to the end of the first century, when the Gospel was finalized.

Paul Anderson, "Johannine Community", n.p. [cited 27 Sep 2022]. Online:


Paul Anderson

Paul Anderson
Professor, George Fox University

Paul Anderson is professor of biblical and Quaker studies at George Fox University. His most recent book is Riddles of the Fourth Gospel: An Introduction to John (Fortress, 2012).

A term from late Antiquity, it refers to the western-most part of Asia, bordered by the Black, the Mediterranean, and Agean Seas, in what is now modern-day Turkey.

A system of religious worship, or cultus (e.g., the Israelite cult). Also refers to adherents of that system.

a person who is not Jewish

A gospel is an account that describes the life of Jesus of Nazareth.

Describing the hybrid form of Judaism and Christianity commonly practiced in the early Christian church, prior to the mission to the Gentiles.

the southern kingdom of Judah during the divided monarchy or what later became the larger province under imperial control

Service or a religious vocation to help others.

A collection of first-century Jewish and early Christian writings that, along with the Old Testament, makes up the Christian Bible.

Another name often used for the area of Israel and Judah, derived from the Latin term for the Roman province of Palaestina; ultimately, the name derives from the name of the Philistine people.

Belonging to the ancient region of Israel and Judah, derived from the Latin name for the Roman province of Palaestina.

John 9:22

22His parents said this because they were afraid of the Jews; for the Jews had already agreed that anyone who confessed Jesus to be the Messiah would be put out ... View more

John 12:42

42Nevertheless many, even of the authorities, believed in him. But because of the Pharisees they did not confess it, for fear that they would be put out of the ... View more

John 16:2

2They will put you out of the synagogues. Indeed, an hour is coming when those who kill you will think that by doing so they are offering worship to God.

1John 2:18-25

Warning against Antichrists
18Children, it is the last hour! As you have heard that antichrist is coming, so now many antichrists have come. From this we know t ... View more

John 20:28

28Thomas answered him, “My Lord and my God!”

John 5:21

21Indeed, just as the Father raises the dead and gives them life, so also the Son gives life to whomever he wishes.

1John 4:1-3

Testing the Spirits
1Beloved, do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits to see whether they are from God; for many false prophets have gone out into the ... View more

John 19:34-35

34Instead, one of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear, and at once blood and water came out.35(He who saw this has testified so that you also may believe ... View more

3John 1:9-10

Diotrephes and Demetrius
9I have written something to the church; but Diotrephes, who likes to put himself first, does not acknowledge our authority.10So if I c ... View more

John 17

Jesus Prays for His Disciples
1After Jesus had spoken these words, he looked up to heaven and said, “Father, the hour has come; glorify your Son so that the Son ... View more

John 13:34-35

34I give you a new commandment, that you love one another. Just as I have loved you, you also should love one another.35By this everyone will know that you are ... View more

1John 3:11-4:12

Love One Another
11For this is the message you have heard from the beginning, that we should love one another.12We must not be like Cain who was from the evil o ... View more

2John 1:5

5But now, dear lady, I ask you, not as though I were writing you a new commandment, but one we have had from the beginning, let us love one another.

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