Colossae by Alan H. Cadwallader

Twin peaks rise in a peaceful, lush agricultural setting in what is now modern Turkey. They may not inspire confidence that here lay a city—successively a major Hittite settlement, an administrative center in the Persian Empire, the home for a number of Christ-followers, and a famous Byzantine pilgrim destination. Seventeenth-century European visitors were unimpressed because, unlike Ephesus or its neighbors Laodicea and Hierapolis (Col 2:1, Col 4:13, Col 4:15-16), so few monuments remained from ancient Colossae. However, a recent pottery survey has demonstrated continuous occupation from the Late Chalcolithic Age (3500 BCE) to the late Byzantine period (1200 CE).

What do we know about Colossae’s history?

The cello-shape of the biconical mound (the locally designated “twin peaks”) matches the fortress-city design of Hittite settlements and originally covered almost thirty acres. Hittite culture valued mountains and water—both are lavishly supplied at Colossae. The course of the River Lycus probably was incorporated within the city walls during the Greco-Roman periods. Smaller waterways fostered the cultivation of olives, vines, timber, and fruit trees but were also crucial in the city’s most famous product, textiles. The city vista is dominated by Mount Cadmus (Honazdağ) towering nearly 8,300 feet above sea level, a fitting prompt to later cosmological speculation (see Col 1:12-20).

The subsequent Phrygian period (1200–600 BCE) left a legacy in people’s names, in the design of funeral monuments, and in certain features of its religious makeup (including the worship of the Phrygian nature-god Mên). During the Persian period (550–330 BCE), Colossae was the city center of a western borderland district (called a “satrapy”). Persian emphasis on the beauty and leisure of gardens and parks (for hunting, bathing, and relaxing) seems to have found Colossae a most conducive settlement.

Following Alexander the Great’s conquests in the late fourth century BCE, Colossae fairly rapidly adopted Hellenistic conventions and culture but lost its preeminent status in the Lycus Valley to Laodicea and Hierapolis. These two cities were backed by Hellenistic rulers (the “Seleucids,” followed by the “Attalids”) who fostered the protection of their interests in the cities they founded by bringing Jewish migrants from Babylonia and Mesopotamia, for which they were awarded land-holdings and tax exemptions.

Formal Roman control was established in 129 BCE with Colossae as part of the province of Asia. At that time, it boasted multiple civic offices, a governing elite with close ties to the senatorial class and to Rome generally, a functioning theatre, baths, athletic games and gladiator spectacles, a prosperous agricultural sector, and a provincial presence.

What makes Colossae of such interest?

Although Colossae gained a small number of notices by ancient authors (Xenophon, Herodotus, Strabo, Pliny the Elder, Polyaenus, Diodotus Siculus), its acclaim comes from two letters in the Second Testament, Paul’s brief Letter to Philemon and the Pauline Letter to the Colossians.

In the late fourth or early fifth century, Colossae’s sacred spring also became the setting for a popular story of Saint Michael the archangel. The city later developed into a leading Byzantine ecclesiastical center, surviving castigation for its veneration of angels (see Col 2:18) and become hailed for the honoring of Saint Michael during the battle over icons in the eighth and ninth centuries. The city was renamed Chonai (meaning “funnels”) because of the dramatic story of Saint Michael’s rescue of the city from a destructive flood—The Miracle of the Archistrategos Michael of Chonai (see the translation in Colossae in Space and Time).

Did Colossae collapse?

The Lycus Valley is prone to seismic activity, being one of the epicenters for the Anatolian conjunction of the Eurasian, African, and Arabian Plates. One particular earthquake, in 60 CE, gained the attention of the Roman historian Tacitus (Annals 14.27). He reported that Laodicea, the center of a Roman judicial district, recovered from the destruction using its own resources. In the modern era, this reference was combined with the dearth of monumental remains at Colossae to conjure an interpretation that the city was completely destroyed or at least rendered terminal by the earthquake. This has had a deleterious consequence for interpretation of the New Testament letters associated with the site.

However, about thirty-six inscriptions related to the site, along with seventy-six different types of bronze coins—most dated to the second and third centuries—have challenged this assumption. One recent inscription in particular seems finally to have shelved the misconception about Colossae’s destruction. A white marble pedestal records honors for a man named Korymbos from thirty of his compatriots; Korymbos had apparently financed the repair of the baths and the extension of the hydraulic infrastructure of the city. Dated to the late first or early second century, the inscription seems to be directly related to restoration work after the earthquake. It is a salutary reminder that a city’s existence and prosperity is not necessarily measured by notice in Roman writers hundreds of miles away. In fact, Colossae seems to have gone through a substantial upsurge in prosperity in the second century and remained a vibrant city well into Byzantine times.

Alan H. Cadwallader, "Colossae", n.p. [cited 27 Nov 2022]. Online:



Alan H. Cadwallader
research professor at the Centre for Public and Contextual Theology , Charles Sturt University

Alan H. Cadwallader is a research professor at the Centre for Public and Contextual Theology at Charles Sturt University, Canberra, Australia. He has published many articles and chapters on Colossae, including several inscriptions found at or near the site. He is the coeditor of Colossae in Space and Time (Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2011), and New Documents Illustrating the History of Early Christianity. Vol. 12: The Lycus Valley (Eerdmans, 2022), and author of Colossae, Colossians, Philemon: The Interface (Eerdmans, 2022).

Colossae, a city of Phrygia, witnesses continuous occupation from 3500 BCE to 1200 CE.

Did you know…?

  • Some scholars think the name “Colossae” does not derive from a Greek designation but is a Greek rendering of the Hittite place-name.
  • Over 160 names of Colossian inhabitants are known. The names are mainly Greek but some are Phrygian, Thracian, and Scythian (see Col 3:11). The name Apphia (Phlm 1:2) is, in origin, Phrygian and was still predominantly found in Phrygia in the first century.
  • A leading Colossian woman, Claudia Eugenetoriane, revived the city mint when Hadrian became emperor, even designating herself “widow” in the legend of one of her sponsored coins—unique among the descriptions found on bronze coins sponsored by women in Asia Minor. About twenty-seven women sponsors are known—they often self-designate as “priestess” or other civic office. This may suggest that Colossae had its own formal group or association of widows; it certainly credits an additional measure of status to this wealthy woman.
  • Colossae’s second century coins show an emphasis on the god Helios (as distinct from Apollo)—unparalleled in the region. It seems that Colossae was combining a manufactured Greek origin of its name with the memory of the greatest statue of Helios in the ancient world (at Rhodes), to promote itself as a “colossus.”
  • Colossae resented the rise of Laodikeia as the leading city of the Lycus Valley, even calling Laodikeia “the lawless mob” in one of the city’s early Byzantine writings (“St Michael of Chonai”), a deliberate false pun on the name laos + dikaios (“righteous people”).
  • Colossae was one few cities to have a sanctuary to Tyche Protogeneia, the goddess of fortune and prosperity, and governor of the order of the universe.
  • Unlike Laodicea and Hierapolis, Colossae shows no evidence of Jews in its population until the twelfth century, suggesting that references to Jewish markers in the Letter to the Colossians (Col 2:16) might be intended for these cities (see Col 4:16) and/or a construct designed to warn against such influence from them.
  • Seventeen or eighteen epitaphs from Colossae have been published, dated from the first to the third centuries CE; not one matches the family structure implied by the regulation of the household found in Col 3:18-4:1.

Relating to the Byzantine empire, which ruled the Eastern Mediterranean from the fifth century CE to 1453; its capital was Byzantium (modern Istanbul).

The Copper Age of human development, which fell between the Stone and Bronze Ages. In the ancient Near East, it lasted from the late 5th to the late 4th millenium.

A broad, diverse group of nations ruled by the government of a single nation.

Col 2:1

1For I want you to know how much I am struggling for you, and for those in Laodicea, and for all who have not seen me face to face.

Col 4:13

13For I testify for him that he has worked hard for you and for those in Laodicea and in Hierapolis.

Col 4:15-16

15Give my greetings to the brothers and sisters in Laodicea, and to Nympha and the church in her house.16And when this letter has been read among you, have it r ... View more

A Macedonian (Greek) general who conquered the Persians and ruled over a vast empire, from Greece to the Indus River, in the 330s B.C.E.

Ancient lower Mesopotamia, which for much of the second and first millenniums was the under the control of an empire centered in Babylon.

Before the Common Era; a notation used in place of B.C. ("before Christ") for years before the current calendar era.

Pertaining to the cosmos, i.e. the known universe.

Relating to the cultures of Greece or Rome.

Of or relating to Greek culture, especially ancient Greece after Alexander the Great.

Col 1:12-20

12 giving thanks to the Father, who has enabled[a] you[b] to share in the inheritance of the saints in the light. 13 He has rescued us from the power of darknes ... View more

Related to the church.

operated, moved, or hardened by water

A religious work of art often depicting a religious figure, as in a painting.

Short written texts, generally inscribed on stone or clay and frequently recording an event or dedicating an object.

Short written texts, generally inscribed on stone or clay and frequently recording an event or dedicating an object.

A collection of first-century Jewish and early Christian writings that, along with the Old Testament, makes up the Christian Bible.

A first-century C.E. Roman soldier, lawyer, and writer who pursued a philosophy of nature and the physical world.

A person deemed holy by a religious tradition, especially in Roman Catholicism.

Col 2:18

18Do not let anyone disqualify you, insisting on self-abasement and worship of angels, dwelling on visions, puffed up without cause by a human way of thinking,

A term from late Antiquity, it refers to the western-most part of Asia, bordered by the Black, the Mediterranean, and Agean Seas, in what is now modern-day Turkey.

a site with religious significance

Greek goddess of good fortune

The third division of the Jewish canon, also called by the Hebrew name Ketuvim. The other two divisions are the Torah (Pentateuch) and Nevi'im (Prophets); together the three divisions create the acronym Tanakh, the Jewish term for the Hebrew Bible.

Col 3:11

11In that renewal there is no longer Greek and Jew, circumcised and uncircumcised, barbarian, Scythian, slave and free; but Christ is all and in all!

Phlm 1:2

2to Apphia our sister, to Archippus our fellow soldier, and to the church in your house:

Col 2:16

16 Therefore do not let anyone condemn you in matters of food and drink or of observing festivals, new moons, or sabbaths.

Col 4:16

16And when this letter has been read among you, have it read also in the church of the Laodiceans; and see that you read also the letter from Laodicea.

Col 3:18-4:1

Rules for Christian Households
18Wives, be subject to your husbands, as is fitting in the Lord.19Husbands, love your wives and never treat them harshly.20Childr ... View more

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