Sinai by Benjamin Sommer

Is Mount Sinai a place or an idea?

Sinai refers less to a place than to a set of ideas. Nobody knows where Mount Sinai is. Scholars are not even sure it is located in what we call the Sinai Desert, southwest of Canaan; some speculate that it may instead be on the northwestern edge of the Arabian Peninsula. The reason for our doubts is that ancient Israelites did not regard Mount Sinai as a site of pilgrimage, so its exact location was forgotten. Even for ancient Israelites, it was the memory of what happened at Sinai that mattered, not the mountain itself.

Biblical authors narrate what happened at Sinai; they allude to those events, and they evoke them for rhetorical purposes. But they do not recommend that Israelites travel to Sinai to pay homage to the deity who appeared to the people there. Thus Sinai differs from the other hilltop that loomed large in Israel’s religious imagination: Zion. Events at Mount Zion (the almost-sacrifice of Isaac; the magnificent dedication of Solomon’s temple) played a relatively small role in the memories of biblical and early postbiblical writers; few allusions to the events there occur in the Hebrew Bible. But Zion itself was of great importance. Many Israelites believed God literally lived within the temple on Mount Zion, or at least that the hilltop was God’s mailing address on earth. Israelites went there to experience God’s presence, to bask in the holy, to offer sacrifices. Zion was the mountain of Israel’s religious present and (especially after the Babylonians destroyed the temple) its religious future. Sinai, however, was relevant to Israel’s past, for it was there that Israel became God’s partner in a covenant. If Zion was the locus of worship and hope, Sinai was a site of memory.

Revelation happened at Sinai—but what do biblical texts say was revealed?

Many texts recall Sinai as a place of law giving following the exodus from Egypt (Exod 19-24, Deut 4-5, Deut 3:2-4). Several biblical poems, however, refer to Sinai as a place where God appeared to Israel for the sake of the manifestation itself (Hab 3:3-6; see also Ps 114, which alludes to a number of the events around the exodus without mentioning law giving); others speak of Sinai or similar locations south of Canaan as the place from which God went forth to wage war on behalf of the people (Judg 5:4-5, Ps 68:8-10).

These poetic understandings of Sinai also play a role in Exod 3-4, where Moses experiences God’s presence in the form of a strange flame inside a bush. There God reveals the divine name (Yhwh); the purpose of revelation at the bush was not law giving or theological teaching but simply the revelation itself. God commissioned Moses there to serve as God’s lieutenant in the war of liberation against Israel’s Egyptian oppressors. Who appeared at Sinai: God the lawgiver, God the warrior, or quite simply, God? There is no contradiction among these three possibilities, but different texts emphasize them differently.

Even as the place of law giving, Sinai plays varied roles. The account in Exodus is built from several originally separate documents and perhaps scribal supplements as well. All these sources associate Sinai with the formation of covenant and law giving, but in different ways. In one source in Exodus, God revealed laws to Moses on top of the mountain itself. In another (the Priestly source), Moses received only architectural plans for constructing a portable sanctuary at Sinai; the actual law giving occurred later on. Deuteronomy tells us the people heard only the Ten Commandments at Sinai, and the rest of the laws were revealed to them 40 years later, on the plains of Moab. For several sources, Sinai was less the location of law giving than the place where the conditions for the future law giving were prepared.

What did the word “Sinai” conjure up for an audience in biblical times?

Biblical authors agree that Sinai was somehow associated with law and covenant. By alluding to Sinai or to Moses (the main actor in the Sinai story), they evoke a conception of covenant involving responsibilities on the people’s part. They sometimes contrast that conception of covenant with one emphasizing God’s promises more than the nation’s obligations. They allude to the latter conception by mentioning Zion, David, or the patriarchs or matriarchs. Sometimes authors claim that the Sinai covenant was of greater importance (Jer 7) or that it was of limited duration, whereas the promises to Abraham or David endure forever (Gal 3-4), or that the two worked together, so that the eternity of the promises ensured that the Sinai covenant could always be renewed (Isa 54, Lev 26).

We saw at the beginning of this article that Sinai’s location is unknown, even though Sinai is tremendously important to biblical religion. Appropriately enough, the same is true of the covenant made at Sinai: its place in the religion of Israel, and in the religions that grew out of it, is central. But theologians—in the Bible and afterwards—conduct rich debates on where that central place is and what it means.

Benjamin Sommer, "Sinai", n.p. [cited 3 Dec 2022]. Online:


Benjamin Sommer

Benjamin Sommer
Professor, Jewish Theological Seminary - New York

Benjamin Sommer is professor of Bible at the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York. Prior to teaching at the Jewish Theological Seminary, he served as Director of the Crown Family Center for Jewish Studies at Northwestern University. His book The Bodies of God and the World of Ancient Israel (Cambridge University Press, 2009) won several awards. His most recent book is Revelation and Authority: Sinai in Jewish Scripture and Tradition (Yale University Press, 2015). 

Sinai plays an important role in the Bible, less as a specific place and more as a symbol that evokes a set of related but varied ideas relating to law, covenant, and revelation.

Did you know…?

  • Biblical scholars don’t really know where Mount Sinai was located—or even if it was in what we call the Sinai Peninsula.
  • Some biblical texts (including Deuteronomy and passages in other books that are closely related to Deuteronomy) never use the word “Sinai” when speaking about the revelation of the Ten Commandments. Instead, they speak of Mount Horeb, which might be a different name for the same place or might even refer to a different place altogether.
  • The word “Sinai” or references to what happened there serve biblical authors as a shorthand way of referring to a covenant involving mutual responsibilities between God and the people Israel.

Indirect references to another idea or document.

Residents of the ancient Mesopotamian city of Babylon, also used to refer to the population of the larger geographical designation of lower Mesopotamia.

A West Semitic language, in which most of the Hebrew Bible is written except for parts of Daniel and Ezra. Hebrew is regarded as the spoken language of ancient Israel but is largely replaced by Aramaic in the Persian period.

Associated with a deity; exhibiting religious importance; set apart from ordinary (i.e. "profane") things.

a journey, usually with religious significance

Of or related to history after the writing of the canonical Bible; can also mean transcending a culture that focuses on the Bible.

Relating to persuasive speech or writing.

Characteristic of a deity (a god or goddess).

migration of the ancient Israelites from Egypt into Canaan

Visible or tangible form of something ethereal, abstract, or invisible.

Relating to the priests, the people responsible for overseeing the system of religious observance, especially temple sacrifice, depicted in the Hebrew Bible.

a site with religious significance

Relating to thought about the nature and behavior of God.

The name of Israel's god, but with only the consonants of the name, as spelled in the Hebrew Bible. In antiquity, Jews stopped saying the name as a sign of reverence. Some scholars today use only the consonants to recognize the lost original pronunciation or to respect religious tradition.

Exod 19-24

The Israelites Reach Mount Sinai
1On the third new moon after the Israelites had gone out of the land of Egypt, on that very day, they came into the wilderness ... View more

Deut 4-5

Moses Commands Obedience
1So now, Israel, give heed to the statutes and ordinances that I am teaching you to observe, so that you may live to enter and occupy t ... View more

Deut 3:2-4

2The Lord said to me, “Do not fear him, for I have handed him over to you, along with his people and his land. Do to him as you did to King Sihon of the Amorite ... View more

Hab 3:3-6

3God came from Teman,
the Holy One from Mount Paran. Selah
His glory covered the heavens,
and the earth was full of his praise.4The brightness was like the sun; ... View more

Ps 114

God's Wonders at the Exodus
1When Israel went out from Egypt,
the house of Jacob from a people of strange language,2Judah became God's sanctuary,
Israel his dom ... View more

Judg 5:4-5

4“Lord, when you went out from Seir,
when you marched from the region of Edom,
the earth trembled,
and the heavens poured,
the clouds indeed poured water.5The m ... View more

Ps 68:8-10

8the earth quaked, the heavens poured down rain
at the presence of God, the God of Sinai,
at the presence of God, the God of Israel.9Rain in abundance, O God, y ... View more

Exod 3-4

Moses at the Burning Bush
1Moses was keeping the flock of his father-in-law Jethro, the priest of Midian; he led his flock beyond the wilderness, and came to Ho ... View more

Sarah, Rebekah, Rachel, and Leah, the wives of the patriarchs of Genesis.

Jer 7

Jeremiah Proclaims God's Judgment on the Nation
1The word that came to Jeremiah from the Lord:2Stand in the gate of the Lord's house, and proclaim there this wo ... View more

Gal 3-4

Law or Faith
1You foolish Galatians! Who has bewitched you? It was before your eyes that Jesus Christ was publicly exhibited as crucified!2The only thing I want ... View more

Isa 54

The Eternal Covenant of Peace
1Sing, O barren one who did not bear;
burst into song and shout,
you who have not been in labor!
For the children of the desolate ... View more

Lev 26

Rewards for Obedience
1You shall make for yourselves no idols and erect no carved images or pillars, and you shall not place figured stones in your land, to wor ... View more

 NEH Logo
Bible Odyssey has been made possible in part by the National Endowment for the Humanities: Exploring the human endeavor
Any views, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this website, do not necessarily represent those of the National Endowment for the Humanities.