Ask a Scholar

Heavenly Beings by Benjamin Sommer

Q. Is the being in Genesis and Judges referred to as maleka Yahweh (angel of the Lord) yeshua Ben Joseph, or an angel? Or is this being Yahweh himself in theophanic form? Why did he stand in place of Yahweh at times?

A. The Hebrew word mal'akh is usually translated as "messenger," so mal'akh Yhwh can be translated "messenger of Yhwh, angel of Yhwh." It can refer to a heavenly being whom Yhwh sends on a mission. However, sometimes in Genesis and Judges (perhaps a few other places as well, such as Exod 3) the term seems to refer not to an angel in the sense of a lower-ranking heavenly being sent on a mission but to something else entirely: to a smaller-scale manifestation of Yhwh.

The mal'akh Yhwh in these cases is the same person as Yhwh, but not all of Yhwh. The idea is similar to what is described by the Sanskrit word avatara. So it's not that the mal'akh in these cases stands in place of Yhwh; rather, the malakh is Yhwh, but just not all of Yhwh. This mal'akh is a more approachable, more user-friendly, less overwhelming manifestation of Yhwh. Examples of this use of the term mal'akh are Exod 3:2, Exod 23:20-21, Exod 33:1-3, and Judg 6:11-14.

Q. What is the relationship between el and elhohim and baal and baalim in Hebrew canon?

A. The Hebrew words el and elohim mean "God" and are used to refer to the God of Israel, who is also the God of creation. But they can also refer in the Bible to other gods, who are worshipped by other nations. An example of such other gods is the god Baal worshipped by the Canaanites; in fact there were several Canaanite gods with this title (Baal means "master," so it's a noun or a title, not a name). It appears that some Israelites applied the title Baal to Yhwh, the God of Israel, which made the prophet Hosea very frustrated.

Q. Are Judaism and Christianity monotheistic or henotheistic?

A. Various scholars have used the term henotheism in many different ways. I think the most common use is the practice in which a person or community prays only to one deity, even though the person or community may recognize the existence of other deities. In this sense, I think it is fair to say that both Judaism and Christianity are genuinely monotheistic and not just henotheistic. For both Judaism and Christianity, there is only one God who truly is all-powerful, and other heavenly beings (angels, seraphs, etc.) are merely subservient to the one true God. Thus the existence of these other heavenly beings doesn't really impinge on the monotheistic status of the Jewish and Christian religions.

Benjamin Sommer, "Heavenly Beings", n.p. [cited 16 May 2022]. Online:


Benjamin Sommer

Benjamin Sommer
Professor, Jewish Theological Seminary - New York

Benjamin Sommer is professor of Bible at the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York. Prior to teaching at the Jewish Theological Seminary, he served as Director of the Crown Family Center for Jewish Studies at Northwestern University. His book The Bodies of God and the World of Ancient Israel (Cambridge University Press, 2009) won several awards. His most recent book is Revelation and Authority: Sinai in Jewish Scripture and Tradition (Yale University Press, 2015). 

The supreme male divinity of Mesopotamia and Canaan.

An authoritative collection of texts generally accepted as scripture.

Gods or goddesses; powerful supernatural figures worshipped by humans.

A West Semitic language, in which most of the Hebrew Bible is written except for parts of Daniel and Ezra. Hebrew is regarded as the spoken language of ancient Israel but is largely replaced by Aramaic in the Persian period.

A belief system in which the individual recognizes the existence of multiple deities while worshipping only one, often a tribal or family deity.

Having the attributes of henotheism, the recognition of the existence of multiple deities while worshipping only one, often a tribal or family deity.

The religion and culture of Jews. It emerged as the descendant of ancient Israelite Religion, and is characterized by monotheism and an adherence to the laws present in the Written Torah (the Bible) and the Oral Torah (Talmudic/Rabbinic tradition).

Visible or tangible form of something ethereal, abstract, or invisible.

A program of good works—or the calling to such a program—performed by a person or organization.

Of or related to a religious system characterized by belief in the existence of a single deity.

The name of Israel's god, but with only the consonants of the name, as spelled in the Hebrew Bible. In antiquity, Jews stopped saying the name as a sign of reverence. Some scholars today use only the consonants to recognize the lost original pronunciation or to respect religious tradition.

Exod 3:2

2There the angel of the Lord appeared to him in a flame of fire out of a bush; he looked, and the bush was blazing, yet it was not consumed.

Exod 23:20-21

The Conquest of Canaan Promised
20I am going to send an angel in front of you, to guard you on the way and to bring you to the place that I have prepared.21Be a ... View more

Exod 33:1-3

The Command to Leave Sinai
1The Lord said to Moses, “Go, leave this place, you and the people whom you have brought up out of the land of Egypt, and go to the l ... View more

Judg 6:11-14

The Call of Gideon
11Now the angel of the Lord came and sat under the oak at Ophrah, which belonged to Joash the Abiezrite, as his son Gideon was beating out wh ... View more

 NEH Logo
Bible Odyssey has been made possible in part by the National Endowment for the Humanities: Exploring the human endeavor
Any views, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this website, do not necessarily represent those of the National Endowment for the Humanities.