Ask a Scholar

Satan by Adam Porter

Q. Our professor in our Prophets of Israel Theology Course once commented that Satan was a conflated figure, historically speaking, and had early origins wherein he had a more innocuous function. Can you enlighten me on this? And how does it stand in light of Pope Francis's focus on Vatican exorcists? Are these evil entities in no way related to the biblical Satan?

A. The noun “satan” appears in the Hebrew Bible as a name (“Satan”) only in 1Chr 21:1. In the longest story involving him (Job 1-2), the noun has a definite article (“the satan”) and should be translated as a title (“the accuser”). In Job, the accuser is a member of God’s court (akin to a prosecuting attorney, accusing Job before the heavenly judge) and obeys God (see also Zech 3:1-2). The accuser is not responsible for evil in the Hebrew Bible; rather the Hebrew Bible generally attributes both good and evil to God (1Sam 18:10, 1Kgs 22, etc.).

By the time of the New Testament, Jews had come to understand Satan as a more independent and evil entity, opposed to God, rather than obeying God (Rom 16:20, Rev 17:7-9, Rev 20:7-10). Through time, people’s understanding of Satan’s characteristics and power continued to shift and develop. In the English-speaking world, most modern conceptions of Satan are based on John Milton’s Paradise Lost (1667) more than on biblical sources. So your professor was correct, that the image of Satan shifted over time, moving from obnoxious but obedient servant of God to being evil and opposed to God.

The New Testament includes many stories of Jesus and the disciples doing exorcisms on people who they thought were possessed by demons (Mark 3:14-15, Mark 16:17; Matt 9:32-33; Luke 8:27-33). Demons are generally understood to be servants of or in league with Satan. The idea that priests and/or individual believers can emulate the apostles and cast out demons in Jesus’ name justifies exorcisms in both Catholic and Protestant traditions. 

Pope Francis’s endorsement of the rite of exorcism is controversial because many Catholics, influenced by a modernist, scientific world-view, don’t believe in demons or even Satan. They may feel embarrassed by the Pope endorsing a rite they perceive to be a throwback to the Middle Ages. But many other Catholics do believe in demons and they may see Pope Francis’s decision as a long-overdue recognition of the importance of exorcisms.

Adam Porter, "Satan", n.p. [cited 26 Jun 2022]. Online:


Adam Porter

Adam Porter
Dean and Professor, Illinois College

Adam Porter is the Dean of Faculty and Professor of Religion at Illinois College, in Jacksonville IL. Trained in biblical Studies and Second Temple Judaism, his primary research focus for the last few years has been studying representations of Satan in movies, fiction, and comic books. 

The expulsion of demons.

A West Semitic language, in which most of the Hebrew Bible is written except for parts of Daniel and Ezra. Hebrew is regarded as the spoken language of ancient Israel but is largely replaced by Aramaic in the Persian period.

The set of Biblical books shared by Jews and Christians. A more neutral alternative to "Old Testament."

A 17th-century English poet who wrote "Paradise Lost," an epic poem describing the fall of humanity and the war between Heaven and Hell.

The historical period generally spanning from the fifth century to the fifteenth century C.E. in Europe and characterized by decreases in populations and the degeneration of urban life.

A collection of first-century Jewish and early Christian writings that, along with the Old Testament, makes up the Christian Bible.

Writing, speech, or thought about the nature and behavior of God.

1Chr 21:1

The Census and Plague
1Satan stood up against Israel, and incited David to count the people of Israel.

Job 1-2

Job and His Family
1There was once a man in the land of Uz whose name was Job. That man was blameless and upright, one who feared God and turned away from evil. ... View more

Zech 3:1-2

Fourth Vision: Joshua and Satan
1Then he showed me the high priest Joshua standing before the angel of the Lord, and Satan standing at his right hand to accuse ... View more

1Sam 18:10

Saul Tries to Kill David
10The next day an evil spirit from God rushed upon Saul, and he raved within his house, while David was playing the lyre, as he did day ... View more

1Kgs 22

Joint Campaign with Judah against Aram
1For three years Aram and Israel continued without war.2But in the third year King Jehoshaphat of Judah came down to the ... View more

Rom 16:20

20The God of peace will shortly crush Satan under your feet. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you.

Rev 17:7-9

7But the angel said to me, “Why are you so amazed? I will tell you the mystery of the woman, and of the beast with seven heads and ten horns that carries her.8T ... View more

Rev 20:7-10

Satan's Doom
7When the thousand years are ended, Satan will be released from his prison8and will come out to deceive the nations at the four corners of the eart ... View more

Mark 3:14-15

14And he appointed twelve, whom he also named apostles, to be with him, and to be sent out to proclaim the message,15and to have authority to cast out demons.

Mark 16:17

17And these signs will accompany those who believe: by using my name they will cast out demons; they will speak in new tongues;

Matt 9:32-33

Jesus Heals One Who Was Mute
32After they had gone away, a demoniac who was mute was brought to him.33And when the demon had been cast out, the one who had been ... View more

Luke 8:27-33

27As he stepped out on land, a man of the city who had demons met him. For a long time he had worn no clothes, and he did not live in a house but in the tombs.2 ... View more

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