Edomite Three-horned Figurine

Head of a goddess,  Horvat Qitmit, Iron Age II, late 7th - early 6th century BCE, Pottery, H: 13 cm; W: 9 cm, Israel Museum, Jerusalem.

Deities depicted with horns or antlers are found in many different religions across the world. In Egypt the mother goddess Hathor is commonly depicted as a cow goddess with head horns but this figurine is rather unique in that it has three horns which may represent a triune deity. Three horns generally indicate a goddess. This sculpture was unearthed at an Edomite shrine in the Negev.

The Edomites were a Semitic people established south of the Dead Sea. Edomites are mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as the descendants of Esau: the firstborn son of Isaac and the twin brother of Jacob. They are also included in a list of the Egyptian pharaoh Seti I from ca. 1215 BCE, and in the chronicle of a campaign by Ramses III (r. 1186–1155 BCE). 


Gods or goddesses; powerful supernatural figures worshipped by humans.

The Egyptian goddess of love and fertility.

A West Semitic language, in which most of the Hebrew Bible is written except for parts of Daniel and Ezra. Hebrew is regarded as the spoken language of ancient Israel but is largely replaced by Aramaic in the Persian period.

The stage of development during which humans used iron weapons; in the ancient Near East, approx. 1200 to 500 B.C.E.

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