Alexander the Great founded his namesake city, Alexandria, in 331 B.C.E. in Egypt. The city was built on a stretch of land already occupied by a small Egyptian village between the Mediterranean Sea and Lake Mareotis (Lake Mariout). The shape of the coastline provided a natural bay that was protected by the island of Pharos, which was the site of the Lighthouse of Alexandria, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. The city quickly became an important center for culture and education in the Hellenistic world. A very large Jewish population quickly began to develop at Alexandria: Jewish immigration to Egypt started as early as the sixth century B.C.E., and by the first century C.E. there were as many as one million Jews living in Egypt according to Philo. A large portion of them, probably in the hundreds of thousands, likely lived in Alexandria. According to the Letter of Aristeas, the Greek version of the Hebrew Bible known as the Septuagint (LXX) was first produced here. Produced by

A Macedonian (Greek) general who conquered the Persians and ruled over a vast empire, from Greece to the Indus River, in the 330s B.C.E.

A West Semitic language, in which most of the Hebrew Bible is written except for parts of Daniel and Ezra. Hebrew is regarded as the spoken language of ancient Israel but is largely replaced by Aramaic in the Persian period.

Of or relating to Greek culture, especially ancient Greece after Alexander the Great.

An early (second-century B.C.E.) Jewish document considered part of the Pseudepigrapha and dealing mostly with the circumstances and rationale for the creation of the Septuagint, a Hellenistic Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible.

Shorthand title for the Septuagint, a Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures fabled to have been completed by 70 translators (LXX is 70 rendered in roman numerals).

A Jewish philosopher who lived from roughly 20 B.C.E. to 50 C.E. whose writings bridge Greek culture and Jewish thought.

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