Rome is located near the Mediterranean coast on the western side of central Italy, along the Tiber River. The site was inhabited as early as 753 B.C.E. and became the capital of the Roman Empire in the latter part of the first century B.C.E. The vast Roman Empire included Palestine after its conquest by the Roman general Pompey in 63 B.C.E. From that point until its destruction in 70 C.E., Jerusalem was ruled by Roman client kings and governors. Roman imperial occupation had a profound effect on Jewish literature of the late Second Temple period, including the Apocrypha and the New Testament. According to the Gospels, it was the Roman governor Pontius Pilate who authorized the crucifixion of Jesus. Rome also plays a prominent role in the life of the apostle Paul. One of the Pauline Epistles is addressed to the Christian church at Rome, and the record of Paul’s missionary activities in the book of Acts ends with Paul under house arrest in Rome. Produced by

A broad, diverse group of nations ruled by the government of a single nation.

One who embarks on a mission of good (usually religiously motivated) works, often to a distant locale.

A collection of first-century Jewish and early Christian writings that, along with the Old Testament, makes up the Christian Bible.

Another name often used for the area of Israel and Judah, derived from the Latin term for the Roman province of Palaestina; ultimately, the name derives from the name of the Philistine people.

The territories ruled by ancient Rome, from roughly 27 B.C.E. to 476 C.E., encompassing terrorities in Europe, Africa, and Asia.

The structure built in Jerusalem in 516 B.C.E. on the site of the Temple of Solomon, destroyed by the Babylonians seventy years prior. The Second Temple was destroyed in 70 C.E. by the Romans responding to Jewish rebellion.

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