Upon his death in 4 B.C.E., the kingdom of Herod the Great was divided among three of his surviving sons. Antipas was given the region to the east of the Jordan known as Perea, along with the Galilee. Philip was given the region to the northeast of the Sea of Galilee known as Gaulanitis. Archelaus was given the regions of Idumea, Samaria, and, most important, Judah, where his father had built his extravagant palaces and forts and had carried out an elaborate renovation of the temple. However, Archelaus’s tumultuous rule would last only two years, until the Romans deposed him and transformed his territory into a Roman province known as Judea. The other two brothers fared much better than their disgraced counterpart. Antipas continued his reign over Perea and Galilee from 4 B.C.E until 39 C.E. During his reign he built a new city on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, which he named Tiberias, after the son of the Roman emperor Augustus. Similarly, Philip reigned over Gaulanitis from 4 B.C.E. until his death in 33/34 C.E. He founded the city of Panias and named it Caesarea, after the Roman emperor (this is the Caesarea Philippi of the New Testament).
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