A New Covenant (Jer 31:31-34) by Walter Brueggemann

How did Jeremiah understand blessings and curses?

Jeremiah’s prophetic announcement (or oracle) is rooted in a long and complex tradition concerning covenant and is situated in an acute moment of crisis in the faith of ancient Israel. The covenant tradition begins after the exodus from Egypt, while the Israelites are encamped at Mount Sinai (Exod 19-24); it is more fully developed in Deuteronomy, which reiterates the Ten Commandments, summons Israel to obedience in the land of promise, and spells out what will follow (blessings and curses) pending Israel’s obedience or disobedience.

The Hebrew Bible presents the prophets of the eighth and seventh centuries B.C.E. as representatives and advocates of the covenant of Israel with Yahweh. In various cadences they issue “speeches of judgment” relating how Israel in its religious and political-economic life has violated the covenant—by taking bribes and reducing religion to commerce (Mic 3:9-11), ignoring the plight of orphans or the needy (Jer 5:28), and depending on cheap labor and unjust wages (Jer 22:13)—and so evoked the curses of the old covenant agreement (see Deut 28 and Lev 26). None of the prophets are more committed to this covenantal discernment than is the prophet Jeremiah. In Jer 11:1-8 the prophet summons Israel to “listen” just as the Shema of Deut 6:4 had summoned Israel to listen to the commandments, the terms of the covenant.

In the course of Jeremiah’s lifetime, Jerusalem is destroyed by the Babylonian army. To the prophet’s way of thinking, that destruction is the enactment of severe covenantal curses in divine response to the Israel’s violation of the covenant. Israel’s continuing disobedience demonstrates its irreversible rejection of the covenant with Yahweh. As a result, the promises of Yahweh no longer pertain; Israel is left abandoned amid the vagaries of history, without the attentiveness or protection of Yahweh.

In the midst of that dread circumstance of divine abandonment, however, emerges an unexpected, inexplicable eruption of prophetic poetry: termination of the covenant is not Yahweh’s final word to Israel. A number of passages in Jer 30-31 address a bereft Israel, declaring that Yahweh is now prepared, in the abyss of dislocation, to make a new beginning with Israel.

The oracle of Jer 31:31-34 utters a new resolve on Yahweh’s part to reengage Israel in covenant, even though Israel had forfeited such a possibility. This new covenant is quite different from the old covenant made at Mount Sinai, even though it is in close continuity with it. It is unlike the old covenant of Sinai because it is unilateral on the part of Yahweh. Israel makes no vow to obey, and so the commandments are not imposed in a way that Israel could break. The new covenant is based on a new reality: the commandments are now engraved on the hearts of Israel and elicit willingness for glad obedience that had been absent in the past. This new initiative, moreover, is grounded in the readiness of Yahweh to forgive all of Israel’s affronts. The oracle voices Yahweh’s readiness to move beyond conditionality to a free embrace of Israel, to a new fidelity with no strings attached. That divine readiness is matched by an anticipated readiness of Israel now to obey the commandments that are so intimately inscribed inside of every person.

How did Christian theology appropriate the “new covenant”?

Christians quickly took the “new covenant” to be a reference to the graciousness of God given in Jesus, who was taken as a gift and a sign of God’s readiness for newness. In this tradition, the new covenant in Christ is contrasted with the old covenant of Moses; the new covenant is enacted in the Lord’s Supper (1Cor 11:25); Heb 8:8-12 quotes Jeremiah’s oracle with reference to the new covenant enacted through Jesus as the Christ. In its biblical context, however, Jeremiah’s oracle is in no way an anticipation of what became the claim made in Christian tradition. It is unmistakably clear that the oracle in the context of Jeremiah pertains exactly to the crisis among Israelites in the sixth century B.C.E. The theological substance of the oracle is that the God of Israel is willing and able to take a fresh initiative of embrace to Yahweh’s chosen people.

Walter Brueggemann, "New Covenant (Jer 31:31-34)", n.p. [cited 29 Nov 2022]. Online:


Walter Brueggemann

Walter Brueggemann
Professor Emeritus, Columbia Theological Seminary

Walter Brueggemann is professor emeritus at Columbia Theological Seminary. He has recently authored The Practice of Prophetic Imagination (Fortress, 2012), Journey to the Common Good (Westminster John Knox, 2010), and Truth-Telling as Subversive Obedience (Wipf & Stock, 2011).

The oracle of Jeremiah introduces a new historical possibility based on forgiveness rather than disobedience.

Did you know…?

  • According to Jeremiah the Jerusalem establishment, through its delusional political and economic policies, brought destruction on itself.
  • The oracle is to be understood as a covenantal-prophetic challenge to the destructive policies of the Jerusalem establishment.
  • When the Jerusalem establishment had come to its sorry end, the oracle opened the way for new possibility for Israel in the wake of destruction.
  • The oracle may come from Jeremiah or from someone in the generation after him.
  • The oracle is among a spate of new oracles of promise found in several prophetic books, notably in Isa 40-55 and Ezek 34-37, Ezek 40-48.
  • The rendering of “covenant” as “testament” in subsequent translations made it an easy move, in Christian interpretation, to read the oracle as an anticipation of the newness enacted, according to Christian claim, in the person of Jesus.

Writing, speech, or thought about the nature and behavior of God.

Of or relating to ancient lower Mesopotamia and its empire centered in Babylon.

Characteristic of a deity (a god or goddess).

migration of the ancient Israelites from Egypt into Canaan

A West Semitic language, in which most of the Hebrew Bible is written except for parts of Daniel and Ezra. Hebrew is regarded as the spoken language of ancient Israel but is largely replaced by Aramaic in the Persian period.

The first covenant made by Yahweh with the Israelites. Though this covenant is often described as eternal and unbreakable, the New Testament develops the idea that the old covenant has been superseded by the new covenant in Jesus Christ.

The promise made by Yahweh to the ancestors in Genesis, including the promise of offspring, land, and blessing. Eventually the covenant becomes the essential part of this promise.

Exod 19-24

The Israelites Reach Mount Sinai
1On the third new moon after the Israelites had gone out of the land of Egypt, on that very day, they came into the wilderness ... View more

Mic 3:9-11

9Hear this, you rulers of the house of Jacob
and chiefs of the house of Israel,
who abhor justice
and pervert all equity,10who build Zion with blood
and Jerusal ... View more

Jer 5:28

28they have grown fat and sleek.
They know no limits in deeds of wickedness;
they do not judge with justice
the cause of the orphan, to make it prosper,
and the ... View more

Jer 22:13

13Woe to him who builds his house by unrighteousness,
and his upper rooms by injustice;
who makes his neighbors work for nothing,
and does not give them their w ... View more

Deut 28

Blessings for Obedience
1If you will only obey the Lord your God, by diligently observing all his commandments that I am commanding you today, the Lord your God ... View more

Lev 26

Rewards for Obedience
1You shall make for yourselves no idols and erect no carved images or pillars, and you shall not place figured stones in your land, to wor ... View more

Jer 11:1-8

Israel and Judah Have Broken the Covenant
1The word that came to Jeremiah from the Lord:2Hear the words of this covenant, and speak to the people of Judah and t ... View more

Deut 6:4

4Hear, O Israel: The Lord is our God, the Lord alone.

Jer 30-31

Restoration Promised for Israel and Judah
1The word that came to Jeremiah from the Lord:2Thus says the Lord, the God of Israel: Write in a book all the words th ... View more

Jer 31:31-34

A New Covenant
31The days are surely coming, says the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and the house of Judah.32It will not be lik ... View more

Relating to thought about the nature and behavior of God.

1Cor 11:25

25In the same way he took the cup also, after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me ... View more

Heb 8:8-12

8God finds fault with them when he says:
“The days are surely coming, says the Lord,
when I will establish a new covenant with the house of Israel
and with the ... View more

Those biblical books written by or attributed to prophets such as Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel.

Isa 40-55

God's People Are Comforted
1Comfort, O comfort my people,
says your God.2Speak tenderly to Jerusalem,
and cry to her
that she has served her term,
that her pena ... View more

Ezek 34-37

Israel's False Shepherds
1The word of the Lord came to me:2Mortal, prophesy against the shepherds of Israel: prophesy, and say to them—to the shepherds: Thus sa ... View more

Ezek 40-48

The Vision of the New Temple
1In the twenty-fifth year of our exile, at the beginning of the year, on the tenth day of the month, in the fourteenth year after t ... View more

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