Jeremiah by Melvin Sensenig

Jeremiah, called as a prophet by Israel’s god Yahweh, was something of a visionary in Judah. In the ancient Near East, an important prophetic function was assisting kings with divine guidance for military conquest. Some previous Israelite prophets had fulfilled such a role. Yet, in the face of impending exile and following Yahweh’s command, Jeremiah refused that role. Instead, he charted a new course for the people of Judah that persisted through exile, something no other ancient Near Eastern religion accomplished. Jeremiah foretold military defeat resulting in the destruction of the temple (Jer 7, Jer 26) and exile. Following this would come a new reality, a new covenant (Jer 31:31-40)—one without the ark of the covenant (Jer 3:16)—and uncertainty regarding the throne of David (Jer 36:30). These prophecies angered some other prophets and priests and led to conflict (Jer 26-28).

What was the turning point in Jeremiah’s struggle with other prophets in Israel?

Jeremiah’s opponents finally hauled him before the assembly in the temple (Jer 28). Though the priests and prophets demanded his death, the officials and lay people decided in favor of Jeremiah. However, this did not vindicate Jeremiah’s message, for another prophet, Uriah, with a similar message, suffered death by the same assembly (Jer 26:20-24). Jer 27-28 describes a significant conflict between Jeremiah and the prophet Hananiah, both disagreeing over the fate of King Jehoiachin, whom the Babylonians had taken into exile. Jehoiachin had become a focal point for widely divergent hopes among various groups of Judean exiles. Many still cherished some hope that Jehoiachin would return and lead a renewed Judah after Yahweh had ended the punishment of exile. They clung to the hope of Yahweh’s promise that there would always be a descendant of David to sit on the throne of Israel (2Sam 23:5, 2Kgs 8:19, Jer 17:25).

Yet, Jeremiah had already prophesied otherwise in Jer 22:24-30 Jehoiachin would never return. He would never have a son sitting on the throne of Israel, and the queen mother would suffer exile (sons were necessary to provide a legitimate heir to the throne, and identifying the queen mother was often a way to legitimate royal succession).

Not surprisingly, when Jeremiah and Hananiah face off (Jer 28), the fate of Jehoiachin is at stake. Jeremiah holds to his former prophecy and reiterates that Jehoiachin will never return. Yet Jeremiah seems unexpectedly uncertain after the confrontation, allowing Hananiah to have the last word (Jer 28:11). Only later, after receiving a new divine oracle, does Jeremiah come back to reaffirm his prophecy.

Eventually, Jeremiah also went into exile, but in Egypt not Babylon. Some of the Judahites took him prisoner when they were attempting to avoid going to Babylon as Jeremiah had directed. Yet in the end, Jeremiah was correct, passing the test of a true prophet given in Deut 13:1-5 and vindicating the judgment of the people and officials in Jer 26:11. Jehoiachin never returned from Babylon, nor did his mother. One of his offspring, Zerubbabel, became a Judean governor when the exiles returned (Hag 1:14), but there was no king from his line. Jeremiah points forward to an unknown righteous “Branch” who would resume the Davidic kingly line (Jer 23:1-6, Jer 33:14-26), although he gives few clues about the identity of this person. Some readers later connected Zerubbabel, whose name means “seed of Babylon,” to the resumption of the kingly line based on Hag 2:23, although nothing further appears in the canonical record on this possibility.

Was Jeremiah ever aware of his vindication?

After the Judeans take Jeremiah and his scribe Baruch to Egypt, there is no biblical account of his death. Some later Christian interpreters, possibly following Jewish sources, claimed he received martyrdom in Egypt. We do not know how much communication passed between Jews in Egypt and Babylon, although certainly there was some, as Alexandria and Babylon became the centers of Jewish scribal activity after the fall of Jerusalem.

Alexandria eventually produced the Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible. In contrast to the Greek, the Hebrew version, likely produced in either Judah or Babylon, contains a longer version of the book of Jeremiah that follows a different order. This Hebrew version (the Masoretic Text) became the basis for the book that eventually attained canonical status. All this likely happened, however, after Jeremiah’s death. The task of collecting, editing, and summarizing his works went to scribes. The family of Shaphan had been Jeremiah’s main protectors while he was in Judah, and they appear to have become caretakers of his works after his departure. Baruch was a son of Shaphan, as was Seraiah, Baruch’s brother, who appears in Babylon in Jer 52.

These scribes, or scribes from their circles, likely added a conclusion to the book of Jeremiah (Jer 52). It closely resembles the end of 2 Kings, much as Isa 36-39 draws on 2Kgs 18-20. From what scholars know from Babylonian history, not every detail of Jeremiah’s prophecies against Babylon and Jehoiachin came true exactly as he had said. Nevertheless, the scribal editors observed that Jeremiah was right about Jehoiachin’s end and Babylon’s triumph. They probably believed this vindicated Jeremiah and appended Jer 52 in testimony to that belief, although Jeremiah himself may well have been long gone by then.

Melvin Sensenig, "Jeremiah", n.p. [cited 29 Nov 2022]. Online:



Melvin Sensenig
Chaplain and Adjunct Assistant Professor , Albright College

Rev. Dr. Melvin Sensenig (MDiv Yale, PhD Temple) currently serves as chaplain and adjunct assistant professor in the religious studies department at Albright College. He is the founder of, a theologian-in-residence service for least-served pastors in Reading, PA, and is an ordained Presbyterian minister. He is the author of Jehoiachin and His Oracle: A Jeremianic Scribal Framework for the End of the Deuteronomistic History (Gorgias, 2020); “Jeremiah, Jehoiachin and ‘the Branch’: King Jehoiachin in Jeremianic Interpretive Tradition,” in Jeremiah in History and Tradition (Routledge, 2019); and “Duhm, Mowinckel and a Disempowered King: Protestant Liberal Theological Agendas in Jeremiah’s Construction of Jehoiachin,” Biblical Theology Bulletin 49 (2019): 60–70.

Jeremiah resisted the normal category of ancient Near Eastern prophets and spoke of a new future and a new covenant for the people of Yahweh.

Did you know…?

  • Jeremiah's life was often compared to Moses’, and some think he may have been the “prophet like Moses” of Deut 18:18.
  • Jeremiah was a skilled poet, rhetorician, and orator, using techniques honed in the ancient Near East long before his time. Many think he could rank with the greatest orators of later Greece and Rome, such as Aristotle and Quintilian.
  • Jehoiachin, the king at the center of the conflict between Jeremiah and Hananiah, was said to have given the keys of the temple back to God because the Jews were unworthy of them (Leviticus Rabbah 19:6). Others claimed he had brought the ark from the temple in Jerusalem to Babylon and erected a synagogue there. He was associated with great scholarship and teaching in exile.
  • The Jewish historian Josephus refers to Jehoiachin over two hundred times and describes him as “righteous” and “good.”
  • Jehoiachin also appears as an important transitional figure in the genealogy of Jesus in the Gospel of Matthew. Some aspects of the account of Jehoiachin may have served as a template for the portrayal of the kingship of Jesus in the New Testament book of Acts.

A region notable for its early ancient civilizations, geographically encompassing the modern Middle East, Egypt, and modern Turkey.

Characteristic of a deity (a god or goddess).

general condition of living away from ones homeland or specifically the Babylonian captivity

Relating to or associated with people living in the territory of the northern kingdom of Israel during the divided monarchy, or more broadly describing the biblical descendants of Jacob.

Jer 7

Jeremiah Proclaims God's Judgment on the Nation
1The word that came to Jeremiah from the Lord:2Stand in the gate of the Lord's house, and proclaim there this wo ... View more

Jer 26

Jeremiah's Prophecies in the Temple
1At the beginning of the reign of King Jehoiakim son of Josiah of Judah, this word came from the Lord:2Thus says the Lord: S ... View more

Jer 31:31-40

A New Covenant
31The days are surely coming, says the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and the house of Judah.32It will not be lik ... View more

Jer 3:16

16And when you have multiplied and increased in the land, in those days, says the Lord, they shall no longer say, “The ark of the covenant of the Lord.” It shal ... View more

Jer 36:30

30Therefore thus says the Lord concerning King Jehoiakim of Judah: He shall have no one to sit upon the throne of David, and his dead body shall be cast out to ... View more

Jer 26-28

Jeremiah's Prophecies in the Temple
1At the beginning of the reign of King Jehoiakim son of Josiah of Judah, this word came from the Lord:2Thus says the Lord: S ... View more

Residents of the ancient Mesopotamian city of Babylon, also used to refer to the population of the larger geographical designation of lower Mesopotamia.

Belonging to the canon of a particular group; texts accepted as a source of authority.

Relating to or associated with people living in the territory of the southern kingdom of Judah during the divided monarchy, or what later became the larger province of Judah under imperial control. According to the Bible, the area originally received its name as the tribal territory allotted to Judah, the fourth son of Jacob.

The promise made by Yahweh to the ancestors in Genesis, including the promise of offspring, land, and blessing. Eventually the covenant becomes the essential part of this promise.

An inspired message related by a prophet; also, the process whereby a prophet relates inspired messages to others.

A line of officials holding a certain position over time.

Jer 28

Hananiah Opposes Jeremiah and Dies
1In that same year, at the beginning of the reign of King Zedekiah of Judah, in the fifth month of the fourth year, the proph ... View more

Jer 26:20-24

20There was another man prophesying in the name of the Lord, Uriah son of Shemaiah from Kiriath-jearim. He prophesied against this city and against this land in ... View more

Jer 27-28

The Sign of the Yoke
1In the beginning of the reign of King Zedekiah son of Josiah of Judah, this word came to Jeremiah from the Lord.2Thus the Lord said to me: ... View more

2Sam 23:5

5Is not my house like this with God?
For he has made with me an everlasting covenant,
ordered in all things and secure.
Will he not cause to prosper
all my help ... View more

2Kgs 8:19

19Yet the Lord would not destroy Judah, for the sake of his servant David, since he had promised to give a lamp to him and to his descendants forever.

Jer 17:25

25then there shall enter by the gates of this city kings who sit on the throne of David, riding in chariots and on horses, they and their officials, the people ... View more

Jer 22:24-30

Judgment on Coniah (Jehoiachin)
24As I live, says the Lord, even if King Coniah son of Jehoiakim of Judah were the signet ring on my right hand, even from there ... View more

Jer 28

Hananiah Opposes Jeremiah and Dies
1In that same year, at the beginning of the reign of King Zedekiah of Judah, in the fifth month of the fourth year, the proph ... View more

Jer 28:11

11And Hananiah spoke in the presence of all the people, saying, “Thus says the Lord: This is how I will break the yoke of King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon from th ... View more

Deut 13:1-5

1 If prophets or those who divine by dreams appear among you and promise you omens or portents,2and the omens or the portents declared by them take place, and t ... View more

Jer 26:11

11Then the priests and the prophets said to the officials and to all the people, “This man deserves the sentence of death because he has prophesied against this ... View more

Hag 1:14

14And the Lord stirred up the spirit of Zerubbabel son of Shealtiel, governor of Judah, and the spirit of Joshua son of Jehozadak, the high priest, and the spir ... View more

Jer 23:1-6

Restoration after Exile
1Woe to the shepherds who destroy and scatter the sheep of my pasture! says the Lord.2Therefore thus says the Lord, the God of Israel, c ... View more

Jer 33:14-26

The Righteous Branch and the Covenant with David
14The days are surely coming, says the Lord, when I will fulfill the promise I made to the house of Israel and ... View more

Hag 2:23

23On that day, says the Lord of hosts, I will take you, O Zerubbabel my servant, son of Shealtiel, says the Lord, and make you like a signet ring; for I have ch ... View more

Of or relating to ancient lower Mesopotamia and its empire centered in Babylon.

A West Semitic language, in which most of the Hebrew Bible is written except for parts of Daniel and Ezra. Hebrew is regarded as the spoken language of ancient Israel but is largely replaced by Aramaic in the Persian period.

People who study a text from historical, literary, theological and other angles.

The people of the tribe of Judah or the southern kingdom of Judah/Judea.

Relating to the Masoretes, a group of medieval scribes who preserved and transmitted the written Hebrew text of the Bible. Or, the Masoretic Text itself, an authoritative Hebrew text of the Hebrew Bible.

Jer 52

The Destruction of Jerusalem Reviewed
1Zedekiah was twenty-one years old when he began to reign; he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. His mother's name was Ham ... View more

Jer 52

The Destruction of Jerusalem Reviewed
1Zedekiah was twenty-one years old when he began to reign; he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. His mother's name was Ham ... View more

Isa 36-39

Sennacherib Threatens Jerusalem
1In the fourteenth year of King Hezekiah, King Sennacherib of Assyria came up against all the fortified cities of Judah and capt ... View more

2Kgs 18-20

Hezekiah's Reign over Judah
1In the third year of King Hoshea son of Elah of Israel, Hezekiah son of King Ahaz of Judah began to reign.2He was twenty-five years ... View more

Jer 52

The Destruction of Jerusalem Reviewed
1Zedekiah was twenty-one years old when he began to reign; he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. His mother's name was Ham ... View more

fourth century BCE Greek philosopher

A gospel is an account that describes the life of Jesus of Nazareth.

A Jewish historian from the first century C.E. His works document the Jewish rebellions against Rome, giving background for early Jewish and Christian practices.

A collection of first-century Jewish and early Christian writings that, along with the Old Testament, makes up the Christian Bible.

Deut 18:18

18I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their own people; I will put my words in the mouth of the prophet, who shall speak to them everything t ... View more

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